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15 March 2016 Pseudo-circulator implemented as a multimode fiber coupler
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Proceedings Volume 9744, Optical Components and Materials XIII; 974412 (2016)
Event: SPIE OPTO, 2016, San Francisco, California, United States
We present a linear all-fiber device exhibiting the functionality of a circulator, albeit for multimode fibers. We define a pseudo-circulator as a linear three-port component that transfers most of a multimode light signal from Port 1 to Port 2, and from Port 2 to Port 3. Unlike a traditional circulator which depends on a nonlinear phenomenon to achieve a non-reciprocal behavior, our device is a linear component that seemingly breaks the principle of reciprocity by exploiting the variations of etendue of the multimode fibers in the coupler. The pseudo-circulator is implemented as a 2x2 asymmetric multimode fiber coupler, fabricated using the fusion-tapering technique. The coupler is asymmetric in its transverse fused section. The two multimode fibers differ in area, thus favoring the transfer of light from the smaller to the bigger fiber. The desired difference of area is obtained by tapering one of the fiber before the fusion process. Using this technique, we have successfully fabricated a pseudo-circulator surpassing in efficiency a 50/50 beam-splitter. In all the visible and near-IR spectrum, the transmission ratio exceeds 77% from Port 1 to Port 2, and 80% from Port 2 to Port 3. The excess loss is less than 0.5 dB, regardless of the entry port.
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F. Bulota, P. Bélanger, M. Leduc, C. Boudoux, and N. Godbout "Pseudo-circulator implemented as a multimode fiber coupler", Proc. SPIE 9744, Optical Components and Materials XIII, 974412 (15 March 2016);


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