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14 March 2016 Generation of tunable, high repetition rate frequency combs with equalized spectra using carrier injection based silicon modulators
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Proceedings Volume 9752, Silicon Photonics XI; 975218 (2016) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2208668
Event: SPIE OPTO, 2016, San Francisco, California, United States
Abstract
High repetition-rate frequency combs with tunable repetition rate and carrier frequency are extensively used in areas like Optical communications, Microwave Photonics and Metrology. A common technique for their generation is strong phase modulation of a CW-laser. This is commonly implemented using Lithium-Niobate based modulators. With phase modulation alone, the combs have poor spectral flatness and significant number of missing lines. To overcome this, a complex cascade of multiple intensity and phase modulators are used. A comb generator on Silicon based on these principles is desirable to enable on-chip integration with other functionalities while reducing power consumption and footprint. In this work, we analyse frequency comb generation in carrier injection based Silicon modulators. We observe an interesting effect in these comb generators. Enhanced absorption accompanying carrier injection, an undesirable effect in data modulators, shapes the amplitude here to enable high quality combs from a single modulator. Thus, along with reduced power consumption to generate a specific number of lines, the complexity has also been significantly reduced. We use a drift-diffusion solver and mode solver (Silvaco TCAD) along with Soref-Bennett relations to calculate the variations in refractive indices and absorption of an optimized Silicon PIN – waveguide modulator driven by an unbiased high frequency (10 Ghz) voltage signal. Our simulations demonstrate that with a device length of 1 cm, a driving voltage of 2V and minor shaping with a passive ring-resonator filter, we obtain 37 lines with a flatness better than 5-dB across the band and power consumption an order of magnitude smaller than Lithium-Niobate modulators.
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Nagarjun K.P., Shankar Kumar Selvaraja, and V. R. Supradeepa "Generation of tunable, high repetition rate frequency combs with equalized spectra using carrier injection based silicon modulators", Proc. SPIE 9752, Silicon Photonics XI, 975218 (14 March 2016); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2208668
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