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18 March 2016 Increasing safety of a robotic system for inner ear surgery using probabilistic error modeling near vital anatomy
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Safe and effective planning for robotic surgery that involves cutting or ablation of tissue must consider all potential sources of error when determining how close the tool may come to vital anatomy. A pre-operative plan that does not adequately consider potential deviations from ideal system behavior may lead to patient injury. Conversely, a plan that is overly conservative may result in ineffective or incomplete performance of the task. Thus, enforcing simple, uniform-thickness safety margins around vital anatomy is insufficient in the presence of spatially varying, anisotropic error. Prior work has used registration error to determine a variable-thickness safety margin around vital structures that must be approached during mastoidectomy but ultimately preserved. In this paper, these methods are extended to incorporate image distortion and physical robot errors, including kinematic errors and deflections of the robot. These additional sources of error are discussed and stochastic models for a bone-attached robot for otologic surgery are developed. An algorithm for generating appropriate safety margins based on a desired probability of preserving the underlying anatomical structure is presented. Simulations are performed on a CT scan of a cadaver head and safety margins are calculated around several critical structures for planning of a robotic mastoidectomy.
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Neal P. Dillon, Michael A. Siebold, Jason E. Mitchell, Gregoire S. Blachon, Ramya Balachandran, J. Michael Fitzpatrick, and Robert J. Webster III "Increasing safety of a robotic system for inner ear surgery using probabilistic error modeling near vital anatomy", Proc. SPIE 9786, Medical Imaging 2016: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 97861G (18 March 2016);

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