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16 December 1988 Common Aspects And Basic Differences Of Optical Devices For X-Ray And Neutron Scattering
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Beam defining devices used for synchrotron X-ray and neutron scattering techniques have both common and different aspects. For instance, a common feature is that Bragg diffraction by single crystals is used to define the energy and the energy spread of beams and that similar focusing schemes apply to both neutron and X-ray optics. The scattering amplitudes of many materials are of the same order of magnitude for X-rays and neutrons giving rise to similar performances of the optical devices. On the other hand, the generally low absorption for neutrons compared to that for X-rays of the same wavelength lead to specific differences between both techniques. Besides these intrinsic interaction properties of the two radiations with matter, the properties of the sources are important for the design of beam optics. While neutron scattering is severely flux-limited and thus needs a big source size and beam divergences up to a degree, modern synchrotron X-ray sources are by many orders of magnitude smaller and emit low-divergence beams of very high intensity. As a consequence of this, mosaic crystals are used for neutron monochromatization and perfect crystals are more suitable for synchrotron radiation beams. However, for particular techniques perfect crystals are required also for neutron experiments and mosaic crystals can provide high X-ray fluxes for synchrotron radiation experiments. The problem of radiation heating which is important for synchrotron is inexistent for neutron devices.
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Andreas K. Freund "Common Aspects And Basic Differences Of Optical Devices For X-Ray And Neutron Scattering", Proc. SPIE 0984, X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, (16 December 1988);

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