The ionosphere, which extends from 50-450 kms in earth’s atmosphere, is a particularly important region with regards electromagnetic wave propagation and radio communications in the L-band and lower frequencies. These ions interact
with the traversing electromagnetic wave and cause rotation of polarization of the radar signal. In this paper, a potentially
computable method for quantifying Faraday rotation (FR), is discussed with the knowledge of full polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR data and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data. For a well calibrated monostatic, full-pol ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data,
the reciprocal symmetry of the received scattering matrix is violated due to FR. Apart from FR, other system parameters
like residual system noise, channel amplitude, phase imbalance and cross-talk, also account for the non-symmetry. To correct for the FR effect, firstly the noise correction was performed. PALSAR/PALSAR-2 data was converted into 4×4
covariance matrix to calculate the coherence between cross-polarized elements. Covariance matrix was modified by the coherence factor. For FR corrections, the covariance matrix was converted into 4×4 coherency matrix. The elements of coherency matrix were used to estimate FR angle and correct for FR. Higher mean FR values during ALOS-PALSAR measurements can be seen in regions nearer to the equator and the values gradually decrease with increase in latitude.
Moreover, temporal variations in FR can also be noticed over different years (2006-2010), with varying sunspot activities for the Niigata, Japan test site. With increasing sunspot activities expected during ALOS-2/PALSAR-2
observations, more striping effects were observed over Mumbai, India. This data has also been FR corrected, with mean
FR values of about 8°, using the above mentioned technique.