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26 September 2016 A novel image-based BRDF measurement system and its application to human skin
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Human skin detection is an important first step in search and rescue (SAR) scenarios. Previous research performed human skin detection through an application specific camera system that ex- ploits the spectral properties of human skin at two visible and two near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. The current theory assumes human skin is diffuse; however, it is observed that human skin exhibits specular and diffuse reflectance properties. This paper presents a novel image-based bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurement system, and applies it to the collection of human skin BRDF. The system uses a grid projecting laser and a novel signal processing chain to extract the surface normal from each grid location. Human skin BRDF measurements are shown for a variety of melanin content and hair coverage at the four spectral channels needed for human skin detection. The NIR results represent a novel contribution to the existing body of human skin BRDF measurements.
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Jeffrey R. Bintz, Michael J. Mendenhall, Michael A. Marciniak, Samuel D. Butler, and James Tommy Lloyd "A novel image-based BRDF measurement system and its application to human skin", Proc. SPIE 9961, Reflection, Scattering, and Diffraction from Surfaces V, 996108 (26 September 2016);

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