The first VIIRS instrument is aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The instrument has 14 reflective solar bands (RSBs) to passively collect photons reflected from the Earth surface in the design wavelengths from 412 to 2250 nm. The instrument uses a solar diffuser (SD) to radiometrically calibrate its RSBs. When lit by the Sun through an attenuation screen (the SD screen), the SD diffusely reflects off the incident sunlight to act as a radiance source for the calibration. An onboard solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) yields the on-orbit change of the SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) by comparing the signal strength from the SD with that from the Sun attenuated by another attenuation screen (the SDSM screen). Complications arise due to the discovery that the on-orbit change of the BRDF is angle dependent. Additionally, the SDSM does not cover the wavelengths for the short-wave infrared bands in the RSBs. Furthermore, satellite yaw maneuvers were performed in the early mission to yield data for refining the prelaunch SDSM screen relative effective transmittance and the relative product of the SD screen transmittance and the BRDF at the mission start. But the yaw maneuver data are coarse in the solar azimuth angles and thus are unable to yield accurate values between the measurement angles. Over the years of performing on-orbit radiometric calibration through the SD for the VIIRS RSBs, we have developed several highly effective calibration algorithms to address the issues mentioned above. We review these algorithms.
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