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1 October 2008 Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental effects
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Spectral remote sensing has evolved considerably from the early days of airborne scanners of the 1960's and the first Landsat multispectral satellite sensors of the 1970's. Today, airborne and satellite hyperspectral sensors provide images in hundreds of contiguous narrow spectral channels at spatial resolutions down to meter scale and spanning the optical spectral range of 0.4 to 14 µm. Spectral reflectance and emissivity databases find use not only in interpreting these images but also during simulation and modeling efforts. However, nearly all existing databases have measurements of materials under pristine conditions. The work presented extends these measurements to nonpristine conditions, including materials contaminated with sand and rain water. In particular, high resolution spectral reflectance and emissivity curves are presented for several man-made surfaces (asphalt, concrete, roofing shingles, and vehicles) under varying amounts of sand and water. The relationship between reflectance and area coverage of the contaminant is reported and found to be linear or nonlinear, depending on the materials and spectral region. In addition, new measurement techniques are presented that overcome limitations of existing instrumentation and laboratory settings. These measurements enable simulation of optical images with objects in the scene attributed with realistic surface reflectance and emissivity spectra.
©(2008) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
John P. Kerekes, Kristin Strackerjan, and Carl Salvaggio "Spectral reflectance and emissivity of man-made surfaces contaminated with environmental effects," Optical Engineering 47(10), 106201 (1 October 2008).
Published: 1 October 2008

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