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10 April 2018 Determination of the excess noise of avalanche photodiodes integrated in 0.35-μm CMOS technologies
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The excess noise of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) integrated in a high-voltage (HV) CMOS process and in a pin-photodiode CMOS process, both with 0.35-μm structure sizes, is described. A precise excess noise measurement technique is applied using a laser source, a spectrum analyzer, a voltage source, a current meter, a cheap transimpedance amplifier, and a personal computer with a MATLAB program. In addition, usage for on-wafer measurements is demonstrated. The measurement technique is verified with a low excess noise APD as a reference device with known ratio k  =  0.01 of the impact ionization coefficients. The k-factor of an APD developed in HV CMOS is determined more accurately than known before. In addition, it is shown that the excess noise of the pin-photodiode CMOS APD depends on the optical power for avalanche gains above 35 and that modulation doping can suppress this power dependence. Modulation doping, however, increases the excess noise.
© 2018 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) 0091-3286/2018/$25.00 © 2018 SPIE
Tomislav Jukić, Paul Brandl, and Horst Zimmermann "Determination of the excess noise of avalanche photodiodes integrated in 0.35-μm CMOS technologies," Optical Engineering 57(4), 044101 (10 April 2018).
Received: 23 November 2017; Accepted: 21 March 2018; Published: 10 April 2018


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