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29 April 2020 Performance of high-voltage CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes with and without well-modulation technique
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Abstract

We investigate single-photon avalanche diodes with a thick absorption zone leading to a high photon detection probability in the near-infrared spectrum, e.g., to 27.9% at 850 nm. Furthermore, modulation doping for tuning the breakdown voltage in single-photon avalanche diodes is used. Modulation doping allows for reduction of the effective doping in the structure during the design phase without process modifications. We compare a modulation doped version with a single-photon avalanche diode not using this technique. We prove that both versions are operational. The modulation doped version shows a reduced dark count rate and afterpulsing probability at the cost of a reduced photon detection probability.

© 2020 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) 0091-3286/2020/$28.00 © 2020 SPIE
Michael Hofbauer, Bernhard Steindl, Kerstin Schneider-Hornstein, and Horst Zimmermann "Performance of high-voltage CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes with and without well-modulation technique," Optical Engineering 59(4), 040502 (29 April 2020). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.59.4.040502
Received: 13 February 2020; Accepted: 14 April 2020; Published: 29 April 2020
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