In this work, the effect of introducing a photonic crystal network of silicon nitride (SiN) micro-domes on the backside of silver coated gallium nitride (GaN) based light emitting diodes (LEDs) was studied. First, sapphire side of the top emitting LEDs, which is the bottom surface of the LEDs, is coated with silver (Ag). Light emitted towards the sapphire substrate is reflected upwards to the top surface and the amount of light extracted from the LED is expected to increase. In an alternative approach, SiN micro-domes forming a two dimensional photonic crystal, 2 μm in diameter and 80 nm in height in average, are deposited on the light emitting surface of the device with a period of 2 μm. Coating the backside with Ag has increased the efficiency of a top emitting LED by 11%. By introducing the SiN photonic crystal onto the Ag backside coated sample, total internal reflection is reduced via scattering and the amount of light emitted has been increased by 30% at 5·104 mA/cm2. Integration of SiN micro-domes with Ag coating has significantly impacted light extraction which has been shown to increase the efficiency of GaN based LEDs. Fabrication process and the results are discussed in detail.
The self-heating of semiconductor lasers contributes directly to facet heating and consequently to the critical temperature for catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) but the existing facet engineering methods do not address this issue. Targeting this problem, we report experimental and modeling results that demonstrate a new method achieving facet temperatures significantly lower than the laser cavity temperature in GaAs-based high-power semiconductor lasers by using electrically isolated and pumped windows. Owing to monolithic integration, the method does not introduce any penalty on the efficiency and output power of the laser. Thermal modeling results show that the laser output facet can be almost totally isolated from heat generated in the laser cavity and near cold-cavity facet temperatures are possible. The method can be applied to single emitters, laser bars, and monolithically integrated lasers in photonic integrated circuits to improve their reliability and operating performance.
The main optical output power limitation in high power laser diodes is the catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) initiated by facet heating due to optical absorption, which limits the reliable power and lifetime of a single laser. Facet heating correlated with current injection near laser facets can be reduced by unpumped window structure. However, the high-power laser slope efficiency drops as the length of the window increases. In this work, separately pumped window (SPW) method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to significantly reduce the facet temperature of the semiconductor lasers without compromising their performance. We used 5-mm long high-power laser diodes and compared its performance and facet temperature to the devices integrated with SPW facet sections, which are electrically isolated from the laser section. The slope efficiencies of the lasers with SPW and that of 5-mm lasers without SPW are comparable when SPW is pumped at its transparency current, illustrating that SPW integrated lasers preserve their slope efficiency. As the window pumping current increases, the threshold current of the laser with SPW decreases when the SPW approaches transparency. The facet temperature rise (ΔT) of the lasers were measured by the thermoreflectance method. The ΔT measured at waveguide regions of lasers was shown to be reduced by 42% implementing SPW region to conventional lasers. Therefore, SPW technique was shown to be a promising approach to increase the COMD level of the high-power laser diodes and it opens up a new avenue for reliable semiconductor laser operation at very high output power levels.
Quantum cascade lasers are coherent light sources that rely on intrersubband transition in periodic semiconductor quantum well structures. They operate at frequencies from mid-infrared to terahertz. In cases of long wavelength and typical low thermal conductivity of the active region, temperature rise in the active region during operation is a major concern. Thermal conductivity of QCL epi-layers differ significantly from the values of bulk semiconductors and measurement of the thermal conductivity of epi-layers is critical for design. It is well known that Fabry-Perot spectra of QCL cavities exhibit fine amplitude oscillations with frequency and can be used for real time in-situ temperature measurement. Phase of the modulation depends on the group refractive index of the cavity, which depends on the cavity temperature. We fabricated QCL devices with from 12, to 24 um mesa widths and 2mm cavity length and measured high resolution, high speed time resolved spectra using a FTIR spectrometer in step scan mode in a liquid nitrogen cooled, temperature controlled dewar. We used the time resolved spectra of QCLs to measure average temperature of the active region of the laser as a function of time. We examined the effect of pulse width and duty cycle on laser heating. We measured the temperature derivative of group refractive index of the cavity. Building a numerical model, we estimated the thermal conductivity of active region and calculated the heating of the QCL active region in pulsed mode for various waveguide widths.
Catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) is a key issue in semiconductor lasers and it is initiated by facet heating because of optical absorption. To reduce optical absorption, the most promising method is to form non-absorbing mirror structures at the facets by obtaining larger bandgap through impurity-free vacancy disordering (IFVD). To apply an IFVD process while fabricating high-power laser diodes, intermixing window and intermixing suppression regions are needed. Increasing the bandgap difference (ΔE) between these regions improves the laser lifetime. In this report, SrF2 (versus SixO2/SrF2 bilayer) and SiO2 dielectric films are used to suppress and enhance the intermixing, respectively. However, defects are formed during the annealing process of single layer SrF2 causing detrimental effects on the semiconductor laser performance. As an alternative method, SixO2/SrF2 bilayer films with a thin SixO2 dielectric layer is employed to obtain high epitaxial quality during annealing with small penalty on the suppression effect. We demonstrate record large ΔE of 125 meV. Broad area laser diodes were fabricated by the IFVD process. Fabricated high-power semiconductor lasers demonstrated conservation of quantum efficiency with high intermixing selectivity. The differential quantum efficiencies are 81%, 74%, 66% and 46% for as grown, bilayer protected, SrF2 protected and QWI lasers, respectively. High power laser diodes using bilayer dielectric films outperformed single-layer based approach in terms of the fundamental operational parameters of lasers. Comparable results obtained for the as-grown and annealed bilayer protected lasers promises a novel method to fabricate high power laser diodes with superior performance and reliability.
Reduction of surface leakage is a major challenge in most photodetectors that requires the elimination of surface
oxides on etched mesas during passivation. Engineering the passivation requires close attention to chemical
reactions that take place at the interface during the process. In particular, removal of surface oxides may be
controlled via Gibbs reactivity. We have compared electrical performance of type-II superlattice photodetectors,
designed for MWIR operation, passivated by different passivation techniques. We have used ALD deposited
Al2O3, HfO2, TiO2, ZnO, PECVD deposited SiO2, Si3N4 and sulphur containing octadecanethiol (ODT) selfassembled
monolayers (SAM) passivation layers on InAs/GaSb p-i-n superlattice photodetectors with cutoff
wavelength at 5.1 μm. In this work, we have compared the result of different passivation techniques which are
done under same conditions, same epitaxial structure and same fabrication processes. We have found that ALD
deposited passivation is directly related to the Gibbs free energy of the passivation material. Gibbs free energies
of the passivation layer can directly be compared with native surface oxides to check the effectiveness of the
passivation layer before the experimental study.
Recent research on surface plasmon polaritons and their applications have brought forward a wealth of information and continues to be of interest to many. In this report, we concentrate on propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and their interaction with matter. Using grating based metallic structures, it is possible to control the electrodynamics of propagating SPPs. Biharmonic gratings loaded with periodic Si stripes allow excitation of SPPs that are localized inside the band gap with grating coupling. The cavity state is formed due to periodic effective index modulation obtained by one harmonic of the grating and loaded Si stripes. More complicated grating structures such as metallic Moiré surfaces have also been shown to form a localized state inside the band gap when excited with Kretschmann configuration.
Commercially available read out integrated circuits (ROICs) require the FPA to have high dynamic resistance area product at zero bias (R0A) which is directly related to dark current of the detector. Dark current arises from bulk and surface contributions. Recent band structure engineering studies significantly suppressed the bulk contribution of the type-II superlattice infrared photodetectors (N structure, M structure, W structure). In this letter, we will present improved dark current results for unipolar barrier complex supercell superlattice system which is called as “N structure”. The unique electronic band structure of the N structure increases electron-hole overlap under bias, significantly. N structure aims to improve absorption by manipulating electron and hole wavefunctions that are spatially separated in T2SLs, increasing the absorption while decreasing the dark current. In order to engineer the wavefunctions, we introduce a thin AlSb layer between InAs and GaSb layers in the growth direction which also acts as a unipolar electron barrier. Despite the difficulty of perfect lattice matching of InAs and AlSb, such a design is expected to reduce dark current. Experiments were carried out on Single pixel with mesa sizes of 100 × 100 – 700 × 700 μm photodiodes. Temperature dependent dark current with corresponding R0A resistance values are reported.
We report on the development of InAs/AlSb/GaSb based N-structure superlattice pin photodiode. In this new design, AlSb layer in between InAs and GaSb layers acts as an electron barrier that pushes electron and hole wave functions towards the GaSb/InAs interface to perform strong overlap under reverse bias. Experimental results show that, with only 20 periods of intrinsic layers, dark current density and dynamic resistance at -50 mV bias are measured as 6x10-3 A/cm2 and 148 Ωcm2 at 77K, respectively. Under zero bias, high spectral response of 1.2A/W is obtained at 5 μm with 50% cut-off wavelengths (λc) of 6 μm. With this new design, devices with only 146 nm thick i-regions exhibit a quantum efficiency of 42% at 3 μm with front-side illimunation and no anti-reflection coatings.
We describe a relationship between the noise characterization and activation energy of InAs/GaSb superlattice Mid-Wavelength-Infrared photodiodes for different passivation materials applied to the device. The noise measurements exhibited a frequency dependent plateau (i.e. 1/f-noise characteristic) for unpassivated as well as Si3N4 passivated samples whereas 1/f-type low noise suppression (i.e. frequency independent plateau) with a noise current reduction of more than one order of magnitude was observed for SiO2 passivation. For reverse bias values below -0.15V, the classical Schottky-noise calculation alone did not appear to describe the noise mechanism in a SL noise behavior, which shows a divergence between theoretically and experimentally determined noise values. We identify that, the additional noise appears, with and without passivation, at the surface activation energy of < 60 meV and is inversely proportional to the reverse bias. This is believed to be caused by the surface dangling-bonds (as well as surface states) whose response is controlled by the applied reverse bias. The calculated noise characteristics showed a good agreement with the experimental data.
Poor passivation on photodetectors can result in catastrophic failure of the device. Abrupt termination of mesa
side walls during pixel definition generates dangling bonds that lead to inversion layers and surface traps leading
to surface leakage currents that short circuit diode action. Good passivation, therefore, is critical in the
fabrication of high performance devices. Silicondioxide has been the main stay of passivation for commercial
photodetectors, deposited at high temperatures and high RF powers using plasma deposition techniques. In
photodetectors based on III-V compounds, sulphur passivation has been shown to replace oxygen and saturate
the dangling bonds. Despite its effectiveness, it degrades over time. More effort is required to create passivation
layers which eliminate surface leakage current. In this work, we propose the use of sulphur based
octadecanethiol (ODT), CH3(CH2)17SH, as a passivation layer for the InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors that
acts as a self assembled monolayer (SAM). ODT SAMs consist of a chain of 18 carbon atoms with a sulphur
atom at its head. ODT Thiol coating is a simple process that consist of dipping the sample into the solution for a
prescribed time. Excellent electrical performance of diodes tested confirm the effectiveness of the sulphur head
stabilized by the intermolecular interaction due to van der Walls forces between the long chains of ODT SAM
which results in highly stable ultrathin hydrocarbon layers without long term degradation.
We have achieved significant improvement in the electrical performance of the InAs/GaSb midwave infrared
photodetector (MWIR) by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminium oxide (Al2O3) as a passivation layer. Plasma
free and low operation temperature with uniform coating of ALD technique leads to a conformal and defect free
coverage on the side walls. This conformal coverage of rough surfaces also satisfies dangling bonds more efficiently
while eliminating metal oxides in a self cleaning process of the Al2O3 layer. Al2O3 passivated and unpassivated diodes
were compared for their electrical and optical performances. For passivated diodes the dark current density was
improved by an order of magnitude at 77 K. The zero bias responsivity and detectivity was 1.33 A/W and 1.9 x 1013
Jones, respectively at 4 μm and 77 K. Quantum efficiency (QE) was determined as %41 for these detectors.
Laser-induced formation of polymer Bragg grating filters for Dense Wavelength Division
Multiplexing (DWDM) applications is discussed. Acrylate monomers halogenated with both
fluorine and chlorine, which possess absorption losses less than 0.25 dB/cm and wide choice of
refractive indices (from 1.3 to 1.5) in the 1.5 &mgr;m telecom wavelength region were used. The
monomers are highly intermixable thus permitting to adjust the refractive index of the composition
within ±0.0001. Moreover they are photocurable under UV exposure and exhibit high contrast in
polymerization. These properties make halogenated acrylates very promising for fabricating
polymeric waveguides and photonic circuits.
Single-mode polymer waveguides were fabricated on silicon wafers using resistless contact
lithography. Submicron index gratings have been written in polymer waveguides using holographic
exposure with He-Cd laser beam (325 nm) through a phase mask. Both uniform and apodized
gratings have been fabricated. The gratings are stable and are not erased by uniform UV exposure.
The waveguide gratings possess narrowband reflection spectra in the 1.5 μm wavelength region of
0.4 nm width, nearly rectangular shape of the stopband and reflectivity R > 99%. The fabricated
Bragg grating filters can be used for multiplexing/demultiplexing optical signals in high-speed
DWDM optical fiber networks.
We report on systematic growth and characterization of low-loss germanosilicate layers for use in optical waveguides. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique was used to grow the films using silane, germane and nitrous oxide as precursor gases. Chemical composition was monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. N-H bond concentration of the films decreased from 0.43x1022 cm-3 down to below 0.06x1022 cm-3, by a factor of seven as the GeH4 flow rate increased from 0 to 70 sccm. A simultaneous decrease of O-H related bonds was also observed by a factor of 10 in the same germane flow range. The measured TE rate increased from 5 to 50 sccm, respectively. In contrast, the propagation loss values for TE polarization at λ=632.8 nm were found to increase from are 0.20 ± 0.02 to 6.46 ± 0.04 dB/cm as the germane flow rate increased from 5 to 50 sccm, respectively. In contrast, the propagation loss values for TE polarization at λ=1550 nm were found to decrease from 0.32 ± 0.03 down to 0.14 ± 0.06 dB/cm for the same samples leading to the lowest values reported so far in the literature, eliminating the need for high temperature annealing as is usually done for these materials to be used in waveguide devices.
Design and analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator asymmetric integrated vertical coupler is presented. The coupler is composed of a single mode low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. Wavelength selective optical modulation of asymmetric vertical coupler is examined in detail. Its potential for sensing applications is highlighted as an integrated optical pressure sensor which can be realized by standard silicon micro-fabrication. Sensitivity of transmission of such couplers on refractive index change of silicon slab ensures that they are good candidates for applications requiring high sensitivities.
Fabry-Perot microcavities are used for the alteration of photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride grown with and without ammonia. The photoluminescence is red-near-infrared for the samples grown without ammonia, and blue-green for the samples grown with ammonia. In the Fabry- Perot microcavities, the amplitude of the photoluminescence is enhanced, while its linewidth is reduced with respect to the bulk hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride. The microcavity was realized by a metallic back mirror and a hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride--air or a metallic front mirror. The transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance spectra were also measured and calculated. The calculated spectra agree well with the experimental spectra. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride microcavity has potential for becoming a versatile silicon based optoelectronic device such as a color flat panel display, a resonant cavity enhanced light emitting diode, or a laser.
The hot Electron Light Emission and Lasing in Semiconductor Heterostructures devices (HELLISH-1) is novel surface emitter consisting of a GaAs quantum well, within the depletion region, on the n side of Ga1-xAlxAs p- n junction. It utilizes hot electron transport parallel to the layers and injection of hot electron hole pairs into the quantum well through a combination of mechanisms including tunnelling, thermionic emission and diffusion of `lucky' carriers. Super Radiant HELLISH-1 is an advanced structure incorporating a lower distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Combined with the finite reflectivity of the upper semiconductor-air interface reflectivity it defines a quasi- resonant cavity enabling emission output from the top surface with a higher spectral purity. The output power has increased by two orders of magnitude and reduced the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 20 nm. An upper DBR added to the structure defines HELLISH-VCSEL which is currently the first operational hot electron surface emitting laser and lases at room temperature with a 1.5 nm FWHM. In this work we demonstrate and compare the operation of UB-HELLISH-1 and HELLISH-VCSEL using experimental and theoretical reflectivity spectra over an extensive temperature range.