A time delay integration imaging system using a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) interline transfer-charge-coupled device (IT-CCD) was developed. The developed system was applied to the remote sensing sensor onboard the Super Low Altitude Test Satellite (SLATS), “TSUBAME”, one of satellite missions from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The sensor has demonstrated high-resolution of the satellite images even with a low cost of development. The system must suit a remote sensing sensors onboard small satellites, which are expected to be in higher demand in the near future. In the present paper, principles and features of the developed system are introduced, as well as expected applications.
The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute has developed NISS (Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history) as a scientific payload for the first next generation of small satellite, NEXTSat-1 in Korea. NISS is a NIR imaging spectrometer exploiting a Linear Variable Filter (LVF) in the spectral passband from 0.95 um to 2.5 um and with low spectral resolution of 20. Optical system consists of 150mm aperture off-axis mirror system and 8-element relay-lenses providing a field of view of 4 square degrees. Primary and secondary aluminum mirrors made of RSA6061 are precisely fabricated and all of the lenses are polished with infrared optics materials. In principle, the optomechanical design has to withstand the vibration conditions of the launcher and maintain optical performance in the space environment. The main structure and optical system of the NISS are cooled down to about 200K by passive cooling for our astronomical mission. We also cool the detector and the LVF down to about 90K by using a small stirling cooler at 200K stage. The cooling test for whole assembled body has shown that the NISS can be cooled down to 200K by passive cooling during about 80 hours. We confirmed that the optomechanical structure is safe and rigid enough to maintain the system performance during the cooling, vibration and thermal vacuum test. After the integration of the NISS into the NEXTSat-1, space environmental tests for the satellite were passed. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, assembly and test of the optomechanical structure for the NISS flight model.
A conceptual design of a wide-field near UV transient survey in a 6U CubeSat is presented. Ultraviolet is one of the frontier in the transient astronomy. To open up the discovery region, we are developing a 6U CubeSat for transient exploration. The possible targets will be supernova shock-breakouts, tidal disruption events, and the blue emission from NS-NS mergers in very early phase. If we only focused on nearby/bright sources, the required detection limit is around 20 mag (AB). To avoid the background and optical light, we chose a waveband of 230-280 nm. As an imaging detector, we employ a delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS. In addition to delta doping, the multi-layer coating directly deposited on the detector enables both a high in-band UV QE and the ultra-low optical rejection ratio. Taking into account these specifications, even an 8 cm telescope can achieve the detection limit of 20 magAB. The expected FoV is larger than 60 deg2 .
We present the current status of the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment-2 (CIBER-2) project, whose goal is to make a rocket-borne measurement of the near-infrared Extragalactic Background Light (EBL), under a collaboration with U.S.A., Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The EBL is the integrated light of all extragalactic sources of emission back to the early Universe. At near-infrared wavelengths, measurement of the EBL is a promising way to detect the diffuse light from the first collapsed structures at redshift z∼10, which are impossible to detect as individual sources. However, recently, the intra-halo light (IHL) model is advocated as the main contribution to the EBL, and our new result of the EBL fluctuation from CIBER-1 experiment is also supporting this model. In this model, EBL is contributed by accumulated light from stars in the dark halo regions of low- redshift (z<2) galaxies, those were tidally stripped by the interaction of satellite dwarf galaxies. Thus, in order to understand the origin of the EBL, both the spatial fluctuation observations with multiple wavelength bands and the absolute spectroscopic observations for the EBL are highly required. After the successful initial CIBER- 1 experiment, we are now developing a new instrument CIBER-2, which is comprised of a 28.5-cm aluminum telescope and three broad-band, wide-field imaging cameras. The three wide-field (2.3×2.3 degrees) imaging cameras use the 2K×2K HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG arrays, and cover the optical and near-infrared wavelength range of 0.5–0.9 μm, 1.0–1.4 μm and 1.5–2.0 μm, respectively. Combining a large area telescope with the high sensitivity detectors, CIBER-2 will be able to measure the spatial fluctuations in the EBL at much fainter levels than those detected in previous CIBER-1 experiment. Additionally, we will use a linear variable filter installed just above the detectors so that a measurement of the absolute spectrum of the EBL is also possible. In this paper, the scientific motivation and the expected performance for CIBER-2 will be presented. The detailed designs of the telescope and imaging cameras will also be discussed, including the designs of the mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical systems.
Since the end of 2012, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has been developed the Near-infrared
Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history (NISS), which is a payload of the Korean next small satellite 1
(NEXTSat-1) and will be launched in 2017. NISS has a cryogenic system, which will be cooled down to around 200K by
a radiation cooling in space. NISS is an off-axis catadioptric telescope with 150mm aperture diameter and F-number 3.5,
which covers the observation wavelengths from 0.95-3.8μm by using the linear variable filter (LVF) for the near infrared
spectroscopy. The entire field of view is 2deg x 2deg with 7arcsec pixel scale. Optics consists of two parabolic primary
and secondary mirrors and re-imaging lenses having 8 elements. The main requirement for the optical performance is
that the RMS spot diameters for whole fields are smaller than the detector pixel, 18μm. Two LVFs will be used for 0.9-
1.9μm and 1.9-3.8μm, whose FWHM is more than 2%. We will use the gold-coated aluminum mirrors and employ the
HgCdTe 1024x1024 detector made by Teledyne. This paper presents the conceptual opto-mechanical design of NISS.
Remote sensing missions have been conventionally performed by using satellite-onboard optical sensors with
extraordinarily high reliability, on huge satellites. On the other hand, small satellites for remote-sensing missions have
recently been developed intensely and operated all over the world. This paper gives a Japanese concept of the
development of nano-satellites(10kg to 50kg) based on "Hodoyoshi" (Japanese word for "reasonable") reliability
engineering aiming at cost-effective design of optical sensors, buses and satellites. The concept is named as "Hodoyoshi"
concept. We focus on the philosophy and the key features of the concept. These are conveniently applicable to the
development of optical sensors on nano-satellites. As major advantages, the optical sensors based on the "Hodoyoshi"
concept are "flexible" in terms of selectability of wavelength bands, adaptability to the required ground sample distance,
and optimal performance under a wide range of environmental temperatures. The first and second features mentioned
above can be realized by dividing the functions of the optical sensor into modularized functional groups reasonably. The
third feature becomes possible by adopting the athermal and apochromatic optics design. By utilizing these features, the
development of the optical sensors become possible without exact information on the launcher or the orbit. Furthermore,
this philosophy leads to truly quick delivery of nano-satellites for remote-sensing missions. On the basis of the concept,
we are now developing nano-satellite technologies and five nano-satellites to realize the concept in a four-year-long
governmentally funded project. In this paper, the specification of the optical sensor on the first satellite is also reported.