The traditional [0/90]T laminate has two stable equilibrium shapes, and it is possible to go from one shape to the other by means of an external force. In the past, researchers have attempted to obtain the snap-through between the two equilibrium states using smart actuators like shape memory alloy (SMA) wires and macro-fiber composite (MFC) patches. The integration of these actuators adds several complications. Moreover these smart actuators are generally attached to the surface of the laminate hence influencing the structural performance substantially. Recently, non contact magnetic actuation was experimentally demonstrated to be a viable method of reversible snap-through. A non-contact actuation using magnetic fields provides an elegant means of achieving reversible snapping without affecting the bistability characteristics of the laminate. In this work, a numerical model has been developed to aid the design of non-contact systems comprising of a ferromagnetic material actuated by a solenoid. The developed model uses a Rayleigh-Ritz based potential minimization to capture the magnetic snap-through of a hybrid [Fe/0/90/Fe]T laminate. The model accurately captures the bistability of the multi-sectioned hybrid layup and can be used for the design of coils to provide the necessary actuation currents.
In the recent past, bistable laminates have been widely studied for their potential in wing morphing applications. The existence of multiple stable states makes them extremely viable as structural elements. However, for successful deployment, these laminates must be integrated into a larger mechanism. For integration, the bistable laminates are required to be clamped to a larger structure without the loss of bistability. In this work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of integration (i.e., using different structural constraints and clamping) on the bistability and the snapthrough performance of a special class of hybrid bistable symmetric laminates (HBSLs). The structural analysis has been carried out using FEA software ABAQUS. Subsequently, a conceptual design of a morphing wing is proposed based on the insights gained from the numerical analysis that uses two HBSLs as skin with a corrugated core. Finally, using the analysis guidelines, two HBSL skins and a circular corrugated core are manufactured and integrated to show the possibility of using such bistable laminates as skin.
In this article two numerical approaches for the shape prediction of a composite wing panel under the combined actuation of a Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire and a Macro fiber composite (MFC) bimorph has been developed. The first approach is a Euler-Bernouilli beam theory based linear finite element iterative scheme and the second approach is a Timoshenko beam theory based nonlinear finite element iterative scheme that takes into account the von Karman strains. The force due to the SMA wire is modeled as a follower force. It is shown that both the techniques developed are capable taking into account this non conservative follower force, while accounting for any additional arbitrary loading. The numerical schemes developed in this paper are validated using the existing techniques while elucidating the lacuna in the existing methods.
Nano-piezoelectric energy harvesters, due to their ability to convert mechanical vibrations to electrical current, are apt candidates for self-powered NEMs devices. Further, these are strain based electrical potential generators and can be used in tactile devices for accurate position sensing. ZnO, due to its piezoelectric properties and semiconducting nature is the ideal candidate for such applications. This paper proposes an analytical model to explain the potentials generated due to ZnO nano-films on being subjected to different forms of static loading. The model also incorporates the effect of different boundary conditions imposed on the nano-film. A perturbation theory based approach has been used to generate the analytical model. Initially, the strains are calculated ignoring the piezoelectric effect. Later, the electromechanical coupling is taken into consideration and the potentials have been calculated as a second order effect. The finite element simulation results agree with the theory to an accuracy of 5%. The profiles for piezoelectric potential distribution agree also well with the simulations. These piezoelectric potential profiles can also be used in smart materials for obtaining the required deformation in a specimen by applying a similar electrical potential across it.