A technique to enhance the response of Brillouin distributed sensors is proposed and experimentally validated. The method consists in creating a multi-frequency pump pulse interacting with a multi-frequency continuous-wave probe. The power of each pulse at a distinct frequency is lower than the threshold for nonlinear effects, while the sensor response remains given by the total power of all pulses. Distinct frequency pulses are delayed to avoid temporal overlapping and cross-interaction; this requires to smartly reconstruct the traces before photo-detection. The method is validated in a 50 km-long sensor using 3 frequencies, demonstrating a signal-to-noise ratio enhancement of 4.8 dB.
A system to interrogate photonic sensors based on long weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented and experimentally demonstrated, dedicated to measure the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The long weak FBGs are used as quasi-distributed sensors. Several events can be detected along the FBG device with a spatial accuracy under 1 mm using a modulator and a photo-detector (PD) with a modest bandwidth of less than 500 MHz. The simple proposed scheme is intrinsically robust against environmental changes and easy to reconfigure.
A technique for liquid-level sensors based on a long fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The measurement system is based on the measurement of the central frequency distribution of the FBG based on time-frequency domain analysis. A short optical pulse is injected into a 10-cm long FBG mounted in a container. The back-reflected pulse is scanned by means of an oscilloscope. When part of the grating is immersed in a liquid having temperature higher than the surrounding ambient, the structure of the uniform grating is distorted and its time-frequency response changes. A spatial resolution of 2 mm, given by the input pulse duration, and a 10-cm long measurement range are achieved. Liquid-temperature sensing has also been implemented by scanning the spectral response of the FBG by means of a CW laser and an OSA.