Fibre Bragg grating sensors have gained a lot of attention in damage detection and strain measurement applications in the past few decades. These applications include matrix crack detection and delamination tip monitoring in composite structures, crack detection in concrete and civil engineering structures and etc. The damage localisation accuracy of such methods, directly depends on precise knowledge on the position of the FBG sensor. However, this information is not commonly provided by manufacturing companies with such accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to accurately determine the position of an FBG sensor with a low complexity setup. The proposed method offers an accuracy of below 10 μm, and can consequently increase the spatial resolution of damage detection methods.
Loads applied transversely on the external surface of waveguides change their circular cross-sectional geometry generating birefringence. Due to this effect the reflected spectrum of a Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) undergoes a splitting of the single peak of the Bragg wavelength. In this work, we employed the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) for x- and y-polarized wave-modes to model the uniform FBG reflection spectra for uniform and non-uniform transverse loads. We also performed experimental measurements for two different transverse load scenarios. The load profiles chosen for these experiments were applied on the FBG sensor through a block of steel and a roll bearing pin. Then, the modelled and experimental results were compared resulting in good agreement of 85% (on average). Finally, during the roll bearing pin loading test, different responses were observed depending how the FBGs were surface mounted. To investigate this, the glue layer influence on the reflected spectrum was further studied experimentally.
In this paper, we used the efficient formulation of the approximated transfer matrix model (ATMM) for the analysis of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors’ response under anti-symmetrical strain fields. Exploiting the flexible representation of the transfer matrices in this new model, we will analytically prove that any sort of anti-symmetrical strain distribution over the length of a uniformFBG sensor will result in symmetrical reflected spectra. This phenomenon had been already observed in the literature, but proving it using the classical transfer matrix model was laborious and impractical. The same discussion will be extended to the grating distribution of the FBG sensors as well. A special case of an anti-symmetrical grating distribution could be the linearly chirped FBG sensor (LCFBG), in which the grating distribution is linearly increasing over the length of the FBG. Using computer simulations, it can be seen that such a grating distribution will result in perfectly symmetrical reflected spectra. Therefore, we expect that a well-produced LCFBG, should also have a close to symmetrical reflected spectra, and deviation from this symmetry could possibly indicate undesirable birefringence effects.
In this paper the behaviour of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors under non-uniform strain distributions was analysed. Using the fundamental matrix approach, the length of the FBG sensor was discretised, with each segment undergoing different strain values. FBG sensors that are embedded inside composites, also undergo such non-uniform strain distributions, when located in the vicinity of failures such as matrix cracks or delamination of layers. This non-uniform strain distribution was created in an experimental setup. Finite element analysis was used to analytically model the strain distribution along the FBG length. The measured FBG outputs were then compared to the simulated results. There was a high amplitude correlation between the results of the measured and the simulated reflection spectra with a maximum of 0.97 among all cases.
This paper describes a new method for the classification and identification of two major types of defects in composites, namely delamination and matrix cracks, by classification of the spectral features of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) signals. In aeronautical applications of composites, after a damage is detected, it is very useful to know the type of damage prior to determining the treatment method of the area or perhaps replacing the part. This was achieved by embedding FBG sensors inside a glass-fibre composite, and analysing the output signal from the sensors. The glass-fibre coupons were subjected to mode-I loading under tension-compression and static tests, in order to induce matrix cracks and delamination damages respectively. Afterwards, using wavelet features extracted from spectral measurements of the FBG sensors, classification of the damage type was carried out by means of support vector machines as a general classification tool with a quadratic kernel.