Rapid advancements in EO/IR imaging technology boosted by developments in focal plane array technology led to significant increase in performance, availability and accordingly in application in the various systems. As a consequence the more efforts in the area of possible countermeasure development are necessary. Starting from EO/IR generalized image forming process and related influences on the imager performances as key part of imager performance, using knowledge generated from well-established electronic countermeasure science and known results in EO/IR countermeasure application, EO/IR countermeasures classification is proposed. Using this classification the currently known countermeasures are analyzed trying to identify existing challenges for future efforts. Also the recent advanced in image processing techniques, i.e. application of artificial intelligence for automatic target recognition, could be used as EO/IR imaging counter-counter measure and should be considered separately.
The influence of the water on the scene IR signature is analyzed. The atmospherical water influence i.e. influence of the atmospheric meteorological conditions and humidity, are well known and described throughout the literature. However the research of water film influence on the IR signature is less covered in the. In this article we analyzed the influence of the water film on the scene signature. This analysis consists of the simplified theoretical model definition, followed by qualitative experimental research results, and compared with selected published results. The structure of the experimental IR scenes is described. The main sources that contribute to the scene IR signature are identified – differences in emissivity and differences in temperature, and they are reproduced in the experimental scene. In the experimental investigations the two scene types were used: (a) scene elements are in thermal equilibrium, but thermal image generation is based on the differences in emissivity; (b) scene consists of uniform background and several pieces of the some type object with different temperature. Thin water film is applied on both scenes. The experimental results are presented and explained. Experimental results show that water film significantly influences to the appearance of the thermal image generated based on emissivity differences. In the case of the temperature differences in the scene, the effect of the water film influences to the generated thermal image is visible only during the process of the water film generation. The influence depends on the quantity of water. The experimental results qualitatively prove the correctness of the starting hypothesis also as results of the theoretical model evaluation.