In recent years, PPDT2FBT is getting researchers’ attention due to its applications in solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Although the main applications of this material are based on the optical properties. However, the optical dispersion of this material has not been studied yet over the UV and visible spectral range. We report the optical properties of PPDT2FBT for the wavelength range of 300 nm to 900 nm using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of spin coated PPDT2FBT thin films were determined at room temperature. Glass of known optical properties was used as the substrates for convenience. To build an optical model the surface morphology was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Then an optical model was developed based on the extracted properties. The optical properties were found to be consistent with the UV-Vis data. The bandgap was estimated from the absorption properties. Finally, the developed ellipsometry model was used for thickness measurement of PPDT2FBT thin films. The measured data agreed well with the data collected using other direct thickness measurement techniques of the same thin film. This developed model can be useful for designing effective optoelectronic devices as well as measuring the thickness of thin films in a nondestructive way.
A conical refraction (CR) laser based on a separate gain medium (Nd:YVO4) and an intracavity CR element (KGW) was demonstrated. The decoupling of the gain and CR media enabled the laser to produce a well-behaved CR laser beam with excellent quality, while reducing the complexity of the pumping scheme. The proposed laser setup has the potential for power scaling using the efficient diode pumping approach and the properties of the generated CR beam are independent from the laser gain medium.
We have demonstrated the highest conical refraction (CR) laser output power to date by placing a CR crystal inside of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO laser cavity. The CR crystal did not have a significant influence on laser output power as well as efficiency. The CR laser produced the maximum output power of 3.68 W with the slope efficiency of 42 % and opticalto- optical efficiency of 34 %. Therefore, this approach could be an attractive pathway for further power scaling of the CR lasers.
A new heterostructure based on AlxIn1-xN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) on SiC substrate has been
proposed for high frequency, where it offers the best performance in comparison to other two heterostructures like on
AlxGa1-xN/GaN and InxGa1-xN/GaN. We have investigated the effect of different higher output characteristics in
comparison to conventional AlxGa1-xN/GaN and InxGa1-xN/GaN with the AlxIn1-xN/GaN heterostructure, where the drain
current is maximum for AlxIn1-xN/GaN and AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructure HEMT respectively for the same barrier
thickness and for the same gate source voltage.