A three-cartridge cryogenic receiver system is constructed for the Greenland Telescope Project. The system is equipped with a set of sub-millimeter receivers operating at 86, 230, and 345 GHz, as well as a complete set of instruments for calibration, control and monitoring. It is single pixel instrument built for VLBI observations. With the receiver system, the GLT has completed commissioning of its 12-m sub-millimeter antenna and participated in global very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations at Thule Air Base (TAB). This paper describes the receiver specification, construction, and verification.
The Tomographic Ionized-carbon Mapping Experiment (TIME) utilizes grating spectrometers to achieve instantaneous wideband coverage with background-limited sensitivity. A unique approach is employed in which curved gratings are used in parallel plate waveguides to focus and diffract broadband light from feed horns toward detector arrays. TIME will measure singly ionized carbon fluctuations from 5 < z < 9 with an imaging spectrometer. 32 independent spectrometers are assembled into two stacks of 16, one per polarization. Each grating has 210 facets and provides a resolving power R of ~ 200 over the 186–324 GHz frequency range. The dispersed light is detected using 2-D arrays of transition edge sensor bolometers. The instrument is housed in a closed-cycle 4K–1K–300mK cryostat. The spectrometers and detectors are cooled using a dual-stage 250/300 mK refrigerator.
The Greenland Telescope Project (GLT) has successfully commissioned its 12-m sub-millimeter. In January 2018, the fringes were detected between the GLT and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) during a very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) exercise. In April 2018, the telescope participated in global VLBI science observations at Thule Air Base (TAB). The telescope has been completely rebuilt, with many new components, from the ALMA NA (North America) Prototype antenna and equipped with a new set of sub-millimeter receivers operating at 86, 230, and 345 GHz, as well as a complete set of instruments and VLBI backends. This paper describes our progress and status of the project and its plan for the coming decade.
This report presents a down-conversion method involving digital sideband separation for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array (YTLA)
to double the processing bandwidth. The receiver consists of a MMIC HEMT LNA front end operating at a wavelength of
3 mm, and sub-harmonic mixers that output signals at intermediate frequencies (IFs) of 2–18 GHz. The sideband separation
scheme involves an analog 90° hybrid followed by two mixers that provide down-conversion of the IF signal to a pair of
in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals in baseband. The I and Q baseband signals are digitized using 5 Giga sample per
second (Gsps) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). A second hybrid is digitally implemented using field-programmable
gate arrays (FPGAs) to produce two sidebands, each with a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz. The 2 x 1.6 GHz band can be tuned to
cover any 3.6 GHz window within the aforementioned IF range of the array. Sideband rejection ratios (SRRs) above 20
dB can be obtained across the 3.6 GHz bandwidth by equalizing the power and delay between the I and Q baseband signals.
Furthermore, SRRs above 30 dB can be achieved when calibration is applied.
This proceeding presents the current TIME-Pilot instrument design and status with a focus on the close-packed modular
detector arrays and spectrometers. Results of laboratory tests with prototype detectors and spectrometers are discussed.
TIME-Pilot is a new mm-wavelength grating spectrometer array under development that will study the Epoch of Reionization
(the period of time when the first stars and galaxies ionized the intergalactic medium) by mapping the fluctuations
of the redshifted 157:7 μm emission line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]) from redshift z ~ 5:2 to 8:5. As a tracer of star
formation, the [CII] power spectrum can provide information on the sources driving reionization and complements 21 cm
data (which traces neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium). Intensity mapping provides a measure of the mean [CII]
intensity without the need to resolve and detect faint sources individually. We plan to target a 1 degree by 0.35 arcminute
field on the sky and a spectral range of 199-305 GHz, producing a spatial-spectral slab which is 140 Mpc by 0.9 Mpc
on-end and 1230 Mpc in the redshift direction. With careful removal of intermediate-redshift CO sources, we anticipate
a detection of the halo-halo clustering term in the [CII] power spectrum consistent with current models for star formation
history in 240 hours on the JCMT.
TIME-Pilot will use two stacks of 16 parallel-plate waveguide spectrometers (one stack per polarization) with a resolving
power R ~ 100 and a spectral range of 183 to 326 GHz. The range is divided into 60 spectral channels, of which 16
at the band edges on each spectrometer serve as atmospheric monitors. The diffraction gratings are curved to produce a
compact instrument, each focusing the diffracted light onto an output arc sampled by the 60 bolometers. The bolometers
are built in buttable dies of 8 (low freqeuency) or 12 (high frequency) spectral channels by 8 spatial channels and are mated
to the spectrometer stacks. Each detector consists of a gold micro-mesh absorber and a titanium transition edge sensor
(TES). The detectors (1920 total) are designed to operate from a 250 mK base temperature in an existing cryostat with a
photon-noise-dominated NEP of ~2 * 10-17 WHz-1-2. A set of flexible superconducting cables connect the detectors to
a time-domain multiplexing SQUID readout system.
TIME-Pilot is designed to make measurements from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), when the first stars and galaxies formed and ionized the intergalactic medium. This will be done via measurements of the redshifted 157.7 um line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]). In particular, TIME-Pilot will produce the first detection of [CII] clustering fluctuations, a signal proportional to the integrated [CII] intensity, summed over all EoR galaxies. TIME-Pilot is thus sensitive to the emission from dwarf galaxies, thought to be responsible for the balance of ionizing UV photons, that will be difficult to detect individually with JWST and ALMA. A detection of [CII] clustering fluctuations would validate current theoretical estimates of the [CII] line as a new cosmological observable, opening the door for a new generation of instruments with advanced technology spectroscopic array focal planes that will map [CII] fluctuations to probe the EoR history of star formation, bubble size, and ionization state. Additionally, TIME-Pilot will produce high signal-to-noise measurements of CO clustering fluctuations, which trace the role of molecular gas in star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2. With its unique atmospheric noise mitigation, TIME-Pilot also significantly improves sensitivity for measuring the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (kSZ) effect in galaxy clusters. TIME-Pilot will employ a linear array of spectrometers, each consisting of a parallel-plate diffraction grating. The spectrometer bandwidth covers 185-323 GHz to both probe the entire redshift range of interest and to include channels at the edges of the band for atmospheric noise mitigation. We illuminate the telescope with f/3 horns, which balances the desire to both couple to the sky with the best efficiency per beam, and to pack a large number of horns into the fixed field of view. Feedhorns couple radiation to the waveguide spectrometer gratings. Each spectrometer grating has 190 facets and provides resolving power above 100. At this resolution, the longest dimension of the grating is 31 cm, which allows us to stack gratings in two blocks (one for each polarization) of 16 within a single cryostat, providing a 1x16 array of beams in a 14 arcminute field of view. Direct absorber TES sensors sit at the output of the grating on six linear facets over the output arc, allowing us to package and read out the detectors as arrays in a modular manner. The 1840 detectors will be read out with the NIST time-domain-multiplexing (TDM) scheme and cooled to a base temperature of 250 mK with a 3He sorption refrigerator. We present preliminary designs for the TIME-Pilot cryogenics, spectrometers, bolometers, and optics.
The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is a radio interferometer for research in cosmology,
currently operating 7 0.6m diameter antennas co-mounted on a 6m diameter platform driven by a hexapod
mount. AMiBA is currently the largest hexapod telescope. We briefly summarize the hexapod operation with
the current pointing error model. We then focus on the upcoming
13-element expansion with its potential
difficulties and solutions. Photogrammetry measurements of the platform reveal deformations at a level which
can affect the optical pointing and the receiver radio phase. In order to prepare for the 13-element upgrade, two
optical telescopes are installed on the platform to correlate optical pointing tests. Being mounted on different
locations, the residuals of the two sets of pointing errors show a characteristic phase and amplitude difference
as a function of the platform deformation pattern. These results depend on the telescope's azimuth, elevation
and polarization position. An analytical model for the deformation is derived in order to separate the local
deformation induced error from the real hexapod pointing error. Similarly, we demonstrate that the deformation
induced radio phase error can be reliably modeled and calibrated, which allows us to recover the ideal synthesized
beam in amplitude and shape of up to 90% or more. The resulting array efficiency and its limits are discussed
based on the derived errors.
Using the array of seven 0.6m antennas in Hawaii, we have conducted short observations on several galaxy clusters through
the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at 3mm wavelength in 2007. The observations were done with a resolution of 6', and we
have chosen the low redshift (z=0.09-0.32) massive clusters to optimize detection. Major contamination to the data comes
from instrumental offset and ground pickup. We will demonstrate the results based on a simple on source - off source
switching observing scheme. In addition, the performance of a wideband analog 4-lag correlator was also investigated.
AMiBA, as a dual-polarization 86-102 GHz interferometer array, is designed to measure the power spectrum of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and to detect the high-redshift clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE). The operation of AMiBA is about to begin after installation of the first two receivers and correlators onto the 6-meter diameter platform by the end of 2005. The initial setup of the array will consist of 7 antennas with 60 cm diameter reflectors in a hexagonal configuration, aiming at multipoles l ~ 3000. Signals from receivers are cross-correlated in analog lag correlators. The initial operation will focus on characterizing the systematics by observing various known objects on the sky. The expansion to 13 elements with larger dishes will commence once the 7-element array testing is completed.
A wideband correlator system with a bandwidth of 16 GHz or more is required for Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) to achieve the sensitivity of 10μK in one hour of observation. Double-balanced diode mixers were used as multipliers in 4-lag correlator modules. Several wideband modules were developed for IF signal distribution between receivers and correlators. Correlator outputs were amplified, and digitized by voltage-to-frequency converters. Data acquisition circuits were designed using field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Subsequent data transfer and control software were based on the configuration for Australia Telescope Compact Array. Transform matrix method will be adopted during calibration to take into account the phase and amplitude variations of analog devices across the passband.
Small volume high-Tc super-conducting YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) thin films are used as low power, very wide bandwidth mixers in the frequency range of 75 GHz to 2.5 THz. The YBCO films are patterned into lattice-cooled hot-electron bolometers (HEB) coupled to an integrated Au thin-film antenna and transmission line. Near 77 K, these mixers have responsivity as high as 780 V/W using only 8 nW of local oscillator (LO) power at 585 GHz. The responsivity can be shown to be truly bolometric. Direct heterodyne and homodyne down-conversion mixing using local-oscillator frequencies of 75 GHz and 585 GHz show overall conversion gains of -35 dB, which includes a -18 dB coupling loss, using only approximately 1 (mu) W of LO power. The gain bandwidth shows a simple Lorentzian roll-off with -3 dB point of 5 to 8 GHz. The large gain bandwidth and small power requirements make these high-Tc superconducting mixers an attractive alternative to existing Schottky diode and conventional superconducting receiver technologies.