The desire for persistent, long term surveillance and covertness places severe constraints on the power consumption of a sensor node. To achieve the desired endurance while minimizing the size of the node, it is imperative to use application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that deliver the required performance with maximal power efficiency while minimizing the amount of communication bandwidth needed. This paper reviews our ongoing effort to integrate several micropower devices for low-power wake-up detection, blind source separation and localization and pattern classification, and demonstrate the utility of the system in relevant surveillance applications. The capabilities of each module are presented in detail along with performance statistics measured during recent experiments.
We have been developing path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Such methods will allow a battlegroup commander to evaluate alternative route options while searching for low risk paths. A risk management framework can be used to describe the relative values of different factors such as risk versus time to objective, giving the commander the capability to balance path safety against other mission objectives. We will describe our recent investigations of two related path planning problems in this framework. We have developed a stochastic search technique to identify low risk paths that satisfy a constraint on the transit time. The objective is to generate low risk paths quickly so that the user can interactively explore the time-risk tradeoff. We will compare this with the related problem of finding the fastest bounded-risk path, and the potential use of dynamic graph algorithms to quickly find new paths as the risk bound is varied.
In Carnegie Mellon University's CyberScout project, we are developing a network of mobile and stationary sentries capable of autonomous reconnaissance and surveillance. In this paper, we describe the cooperative perception algorithms and mission planning necessary to achieve this task, including sensor-to-sensor target handoff methods and an efficient decentralized path-planning algorithm. These methods are applied to a typical law enforcement application, a building stakeout scenario.
In Carnegie Mellon University's CyberScout project, we are developing mobile and stationary sentries capable of autonomous reconnaissance and surveillance. In this paper, we describe recent advances in the areas of efficient perception algorithms (detection, classification, and correspondence) and mission planning. In detection, we have achieved improved rejection of camera jitter and environmental variations (e.g., lighting, moving foliage) through multi-modal filtering, and we have implemented panoramic backgrounding through pseudo-real-time mosaicing. In classification, we present methods for discriminating between individual, groups of individuals, and vehicles, and between individuals with and without backpacks. In correspondence, we describe an accurate multi-hypothesis approach based on both motion and appearance. Finally, in mission planning, we describe mapbuilding using multiple sensory cues and a computationally efficient decentralized planner for multiple platforms.
We begin by considering current shortfalls with conventional surveillance systems and discuss the potential advantages of distributed, collaborative surveillance systems. Distributed surveillance systems offer the capability to monitor activity from multiple locations over time thereby increasing the likelihood of obtaining discriminating data necessary for interpretation of the activity. Yet the multiplicity of sensors magnifies the volumes of data that must be processed. We present our vision of a system which generates timely interpretations of activities in the scene automatically through the use of mechanisms for collaboration among sensing systems and efficient perception methods which complement the sensing paradigm. Then we review our recent efforts toward achieving this goal and present initial results.