Wide-band Electromagnetic Induction Sensors (WEMI) have been used for a number of years in subsurface detection of explosive hazards. While WEMI sensors have proven effective at localizing objects exhibiting large magnetic responses, detecting objects lacking or containing very low amounts of conductive materials can be challenging. In this paper, we compare a number of target detection algorithms in the literature in terms of detection performance. In the comparison, methods are tested on two real-world data sets: one containing relatively low amounts of ground noise pollution, and the other demonstrating highly-magnetic soil interference. Results are quantitatively evaluated through receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and are used to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the compared approaches in hand-held explosive hazard detection.
Sensors which use electromagnetic induction (EMI) to excite a response in conducting bodies have long been investigated for subsurface explosive hazard detection. In particular, EMI sensors have been used to discriminate between different types of objects, and to detect objects with low metal content. One successful, previously investigated approach is the Multiple Instance Adaptive Cosine Estimator (MI-ACE). In this paper, a number of new initialization techniques for MI-ACE are proposed and evaluated using their respective performance and speed. The cross validated learned signatures, as well as learned background statistics, are used with Adaptive Cosine Estimator (ACE) to generate confidence maps, which are clustered into alarms. Alarms are scored against a ground truth and the initialization approaches are compared.