The Origins Space Telescope will trace the history of our origins from the time dust and heavy elements permanently altered the cosmic landscape to present-day life. How did galaxies evolve from the earliest galactic systems to those found in the universe today? How do habitable planets form? How common are life-bearing worlds? To answer these alluring questions, Origins will operate at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths and offer powerful spectroscopic instruments and sensitivity three orders of magnitude better than that of Herschel, the largest telescope flown in space to date. After a 3 ½ year study, the Origins Science and Technology Definition Team will recommend to the Decadal Survey a concept for Origins with a 5.9-m diameter telescope cryocooled to 4.5 K and equipped with three scientific instruments. A mid-infrared instrument (MISC-T) will measure the spectra of transiting exoplanets in the 2.8 – 20 μm wavelength range and offer unprecedented sensitivity, enabling definitive biosignature detections. The Far-IR Imager Polarimeter (FIP) will be able to survey thousands of square degrees with broadband imaging at 50 and 250 μm. The Origins Survey Spectrometer (OSS) will cover wavelengths from 25 – 588 μm, make wide-area and deep spectroscopic surveys with spectral resolving power R ~ 300, and pointed observations at R ~ 40,000 and 300,000 with selectable instrument modes. Origins was designed to minimize complexity. The telescope has a Spitzer-like architecture and requires very few deployments after launch. The cryo-thermal system design leverages JWST technology and experience. A combination of current-state-of-the-art cryocoolers and next-generation detector technology will enable Origins’ natural backgroundlimited sensitivity.
The OSS on the Origins Space Telescope is designed to decode the cosmic history of nucleosynthesis, star formation, and supermassive black hole growth with wide-area spatial-spectral 3-D surveys across the full 25 to 590 micron band. Six wideband grating modules combine to cover the full band at R=300, each couples a long slit with 60-190 beams on the sky. OSS will have a total of 120,000 background-limited detector pixels in the six 2-D arrays which provide spatial and spectral coverage. The suite of grating modules can be used for pointed observations of targets of interest, and are particularly powerful for 3-D spectral spectral surveys. To chart the transition from interstellar material, particularly water, to planetary systems, two high-spectral-resolution modes are included. The first incorporates a Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) in front of the gratings providing resolving power of 25,000 (δv = 12 km/s) at 179 µm to resolve water emission in protoplanetary disk spectra. The second boosts the FTS capability with an additional etalon (Fabry-Perot interferometer) to provide 2 km/s resolution in this line to enable detailed structural studies of disks in the various water and HD lines. Optical, thermal, and mechanical designs are presented, and the system approach to the detector readout enabling the large formats is described.
The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. "Concept-1" is a cold (4 K) 9 m space telescope with five instruments, while "concept 2" consists of a cold 5.9 m telescope and four instruments, providing imaging and spectroscopic capabilities between 5μm and 600μm. The sensitivity provided by the observatory will be a three to four orders of magnitude improvement over currently achieved observational capabilities, allowing to address a wide range of new and so far inaccessible scientific questions, ranging from bio-signatures in the atmospheres of exo-planets to the production of the first metals in the universe right after the end of re-ionization. Here we present the Far Infrared Imager and Polarimeter (FIP) for OST. The camera will cover four bands, 50μm, 100μm, 250μm, and 500μm. In the "concept 1" version of the instrument, FIP will allow for differential polarimetry with the ability to observe two colors simultaneously, while all four bands can be observed simultaneously in total power mode. The confusion limit in the total power mode will be reached in only 8 ms at 500μm, while at 50μm the source density in the sky is so low that at OST's angular resolution of (see manuscript for symbol) 2" in this band the source confusion limit will only be reached after about two hours of integration with the "concept-2" version of FIP ("concept-1" FIP will not be confusion limited at 50m, no matter how long it integrates). Science topics that can be addressed by the camera include, but are not limited to, galactic and extragalactic magnetic field studies, deep galaxy surveys, and outer Solar System objects.
The Origins Space Telescope (OST) will trace the history of our origins from the time dust and heavy elements permanently altered the cosmic landscape to present-day life. How did the universe evolve in response to its changing ingredients? How common are life-bearing planets? To accomplish its scientific objectives, OST will operate at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths and offer superlative sensitivity and new spectroscopic capabilities. The OST study team will present a scientifically compelling, executable mission concept to the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astrophysics. To understand the concept solution space, our team studied two alternative mission concepts. We report on the study approach and describe both of these concepts, give the rationale for major design decisions, and briefly describe the mission-enabling technology.
KEYWORDS: Target detection, Radar, Signal to noise ratio, Detection and tracking algorithms, Matrices, Monte Carlo methods, Reconstruction algorithms, Signal detection, Environmental sensing, Compressed sensing
In this paper, radar detection via compressive sensing is explored. Compressive sensing is a new theory of
sampling which allows the reconstruction of a sparse signal by sampling at a much lower rate than the Nyquist
rate. By using this technique in radar, the use of matched filter can be eliminated and high rate sampling can be
replaced with low rate sampling. In this paper, compressive sensing is analyzed by applying varying factors such
as noise and different measurement matrices. Different reconstruction algorithms are compared by generating
ROC curves to determine their detection performance. We conduct simulations for a 64-length signal with 3
targets to determine the effectiveness of each algorithm in varying SNR. We also propose a simplified version
of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP). Through numerous simulations, we find that a simplified version of
Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP), can give better results than the original OMP in noisy environments
when sparsity is highly over estimated, but does not work as well for low noise environments.
This paper discusses the concept and design of a real-time Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) for
airborne applications which can achieve fine spatial resolutions and wide swaths. The development of the DBSAR
enhances important scientific measurements in Earth science, and serves as a prove-of-concept for planetary exploration
missions. A unique aspect of DBSAR is that it achieves fine resolutions over large swaths by synthesizing multiple
cross-track beams simultaneously using digital beamforming techniques. Each beam is processed using SAR algorithms
to obtain the fine ground resolution without compromising fine range and azimuth resolutions. The processor uses an
FPGA-based architecture to implement digital in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation, beamforming, and range
and azimuth compression. The DBSAR concept will be implemented using the airborne L-Band Imaging Scatterometer
(LIS) on board the NASA P3 aircraft. The system will achieve ground resolutions of less than 30 m and swaths of 10
km from an altitude of 8 km.