The Diamond Beamline I13L is dedicated to micro- and nano- imaging, with two independently operating branchlines. The imaging branch preforms imaging in real space, with In-line phase contrast imaging and grating interferometry at micrometre resolution and full-field transmission microscopy up to 50nm spatial resolution. Highest spatial resolution is achieved on the coherence branchline, where diffraction imaging methods such as Ptychography and Bragg-CDI are performed. The article provides an update about the experimental capabilities at the beamline with an emphasis on the rapidly evolving ptychography capabilities. The latter has evolved to an user-friendly method with non-expert users able to explore their science without any specific a-priory knowledge.
The DIAMOND beamline I13L is dedicated to multi-scale and multi-modal imaging in real and reciprocal space. The beamline consists of two independently operating experimental stations, located at a distance of more than 200 m from the source. The Imaging Branch performs micro-tomography with in-line phase contrast in the 6-30 keV energy range. In addition, a grating interferometry setup and a full-field microscope for nano-tomography are currently implemented. Other techniques providing high-resolution three-dimensional information, in particular coherent X-ray diffraction, are hosted on the Coherence Branch. All imaging methods are tested to operate with large energy bandwidths and therefore shorter exposure times. To this end, two options are currently used: the so-called ‘pink-beam’ mode using a reflecting mirror and X-ray filters and monochromatic mode using a multilayer monochromator. The operation mode enables science for in-situ and operando studies across a wide range of scientific areas.
Preserving the coherence and wavefront of a diffraction limited x-ray beam from the source to the experiment poses stringent quality requirements on the production processes for X-ray optics. In the near future this will require on-line and in-situ at-wavelength metrology for both, free electron lasers and diffraction limited storage rings. A compact and easy to move X-ray grating interferometry (XGI) setup has been implemented by the Beamline Optics Group at PSI in order to characterize x-ray optical components by determining the aberrations from reconstructing the x-ray wavefront. The XGI setup was configured for measurements in the moire mode and tested with focusing optic at Swiss Light Source, Diamond Light Source and LCLS. In this paper measurements on a bendable toroidal mirror, a zone plate, a single and a stack of beryllium compound refractive lenses (CRL) are presented. From these measurements the focal position and quality of the beam spot in terms of wavefront distortions are determined by analysing the phase-signal obtained from the XGI measurement. In addition, using a bendable toroidal mirror, we directly compare radius of curvature measurements obtained from XGI data with data from a long-trace profilometer, and compare the CRL wavefront distortions with data obtained by ptychography.
The Diamond Beamline I13L is dedicated to imaging on the micro- and nano-lengthsale, operating in the energy range
between 6 and 30keV. For this purpose two independently operating branchlines and endstations have been built. The
imaging branch is fully operational for micro-tomography and in-line phase contrast imaging with micrometre
resolution. Grating interferometry is currently implemented, adding the capability of measuring phase and small-angle
information. For tomography with increased resolution a full-field microscope providing 50nm spatial resolution with a
field of view of 100μm is being tested. The instrument provides a large working distance between optics and sample to
adapt a wide range of customised sample environments. On the coherence branch coherent diffraction imaging
techniques such as ptychography, coherent X-ray diffraction (CXRD) are currently developed for three dimensional
imaging with the highest resolution.
The imaging branch is operated in collaboration with Manchester University, called therefore the Diamond-Manchester
Branchline. The scientific applications cover a large area including bio-medicine, materials science, chemistry geology
and more. The present paper provides an overview about the current status of the beamline and the science addressed.
The Diamond Beamline I13L is designed to imaging on the micron- and nano-lengthsale with X-rays of energies between 6 and 30 keV . Two independently operating branchlines and endstations have been built at distance of more than 200m from the source for this purpose. The imaging branch is dedicated for imaging in real space, providing In-line phase contrast imaging and grating interferometry with micrometre resolution and full-field transmission microscopy with 50nm spatial resolution.
On the coherence branch coherent diffraction imaging techniques such as ptychography, coherent X-ray diffraction (CXRD) and Fourier-Transform holography are currently developed. Because of the large lateral coherence length available at I13, the beamline hosts numerous microscopy experiments. The coherence branchline in particular contains a number of unique features. New instrumental designs have been employed such as a robot arm for the detector in diffraction experiments and a photon counting detector for diffraction experiments. The so-called ‘mini-beta’ layout in the straight section of the electron storage ring permits modulating the horizontal source size and therefor the lateral coherence length.
We will present the recent progress in coherent imaging at the beamline and the sciences addressed with the instrumental capabilities.
 C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. Pesic, A. De Fanis Physica Status Solidi (a) 208 (11). Issue 11 2522-2525, 2011, 10.1002/pssa.201184272