Many important molecules show strong characteristic vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared (MIR) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This leads to applications in spectroscopy, chemical and bio-molecular sensing, security and industry, especially over the mid- and long- wave infrared atmospheric transmission windows of 3-5 μm and 8-13 μm. In this paper, we review some of our more recent experimental and simulation work aimed at developing new light sources based on chalcogenide glass optical fibres that can help us utilize this spectral region for biomedical applications. This includes the development of supercontinuum and bright luminescent sources and our progress towards fibre-based lasers. We place these developments in the context of MIR imaging and spectroscopy in order to show how they bring the promise a new era in healthcare and clinical diagnostics.