Nanocellulose-based long fiber (NLF) is a key element of natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites which have ultimate impact for the future technology, owing to its merits in terms of high specific modulus, high strength, environmentally-friendliness and low cost. In this study, NLF is made by aligning cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), which are isolated from wood pulp by a chemical and physical methods. A high degree of alignment of the CNFs leads to increased number of hydrogen bonds among CNFs with enhanced mechanical properties of NLF. In this study, wet spinning, mechanical stretching, electric field and magnetic fields are used simultaneously or continuously to align CNFs effectively. To fabricate strong NLF, the process parameters are experimentally investigated, and their effects are evaluated by using the tensile test, scanning electron microscope.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is known for measuring the mechanical properties of nanomaterials. It has been used for measuring the mechanical properties of few kinds of fibers, such as carbon nanotubes, gold nanofibers, graphene. In this study, the effect of various sources on the elastic modulus of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by using AFM three-points bending test. The CNFs were extracted from hardwood, softwood, bamboo and cotton by using aqueous counter collision (ACC) system and the morphology of CNFs were studied by AFM. CNFs were successfully transferred to the AFM calibration chip and the three-points bending test was performed. CNFs were considered to be circular shape by taking into account the AFM tip radius and the Young’s modulus was calculated. The calculation results indicate that the range of Young’s modulus is between 102 and 131 GPa varying upon the cellulose resources.