The spectra of O2 A-band (0.76 μm) and CO2 near-infrared emissions (1.6 μm) for Medium-resolution Satellite (SCIAMACHY) are simulated by the SCIATRAN model (V3.1.29), and compared with the ESFT and LBL method, as the inversion accuracy and time consuming. The time consuming of LBL was more than ESFT with the relative error less than 1%, especially for the CO2 band. But for the CO2 (2.0 um) of High-resolution Satellite, the opposite result was found. That is to say, the LBL method was more suitable for High-resolution Satellite. Different wavelength intervals and integral wavelength steps are applied to the LBL to select the most appropriate combination for High-resolution SatelliteO2 A-band (0.76 μm) and CO2 near-infrared band (1.58 μm).
The 3.75-micron and 11-micron channels on the polar orbiting NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors have saturation temperatures of approximately 325 K. They allowed limited successes in estimating the sub-pixel fire temperature and fractional area coverage. The saturation problem associated with the 3.75-micron AVHRR channel greatly limited the ability for such estimates. In order to overcome this problem, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the NASA Terra and Aqua spacecrafts have both been equipped with a special fire channel centered at 3.95 microns with a specified saturation temperature of 500 K and a spatial resolution of 1 km. We have analyzed more than 40 sets of Terra and Aqua MODIS fire data acquired over different geographical regions, and found that very few fire pixels have the 3.95-micron fire channel brightness temperatures greater than 450 K. We suggest that the saturation temperature of fire channels near 4 microns for future satellite instruments with pixel sizes of about 1 km should be specified at about 450 K or even slightly lower in order to make the channels more useful for quantitative remote sensing of fires. A dual gain approach should also be considered for future satellite fire channels.
MIPAS on ENVISAT measures vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, ozone, and other species with nearly global coverage and
high accuracy/precision. The standard observation mode covers the altitude region between 6 and 68 km. The atmospheric state parameters
retrieved from MIPAS measurements using the IMK data analysis processor are compared with a number of other satellite observations. Our comparisons in this paper will focus on temperatures measured by MIPAS, HALOE, SABER, and UKMO Stratospheric Assimilated Data. Both individual profiles and zonal means measured by MIPAS and other
instruments at different seasons and geolocations show reasonable agreement, though some differences exist due to characteristics of the
individual instruments and observation scenarios. The MIPAS measurements during the stratospheric major sudden warming during the southern hemisphere winter of 2002 are also presented to show the
features of this unusual event. The analysis indicates the reliability of MIPAS-IMK data products and their capability for providing valuable scientific information.