This book demonstrates how to design an optical system using Synopsys CODE V®, a full-featured optical design program that has a command line interface. The complete design process (from lens definition to the description and evaluation of lens errors on to the improvement of lens performance) will be developed and illustrated using the program. This text is not a user’s manual for CODE V. Rather, it starts with a single lens to demonstrate the laws of optics and illustrates the basic optical errors (aberrations). Then, through a series of examples, demonstrations, and exercises, readers can follow each step in the design process using the CODE V commands to analyze and optimize the system for the lens to perform according to specifications. The text is organized to help readers (1) reproduce each step of the process including the plots for evaluating lens performance and (2) understand its significance in producing a final design.
This book provides the reader with the broad range of materials that were discussed in a series of short courses presented at Georgia Tech on the design, fabrication, and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Although there are not long derivations or detailed methods for specific engineering calculations, the reader should be familiar and comfortable with basic computational techniques. This text is not a 'cookbook' for producing DOEs, but it should provide readers with sufficient information to assess whether this technology would benefit their work, and to understand the requirements for using the concepts and techniques presented by the authors.
Three commercial optical design programs are used to model familiar geometries in ultrafast optics. A set of macros has been created to calculate the pulse delay, group velocity dispersion (GVD), and third order dispersion (TOD) caused by components of an optical system. The programs have also been used to model a number of ultrafast pulse measurement systems using non-sequential ray tracing. This approach can provide evaluation, optimization, and insight into various pulse shaping schemes.
In an attempt to determine what other teachers of lens design teach, I constructed a short questionnaire and sent it by e- mail to a wide range of schools that are listed in the SPIE's 'Optics Education 1997.' I wanted to see what commonality there was between lens design courses and where the emphases are placed. This paper describes the types of courses that are taught, their content, the approaches used, and the tools the teachers used to introduce a fairly narrow technical subject to novices.
Having designed a kit of optics components with simple experiments for the Optical Society of America, there was a question: 'What, if anything, do you do for an encore?' This talk will look at several possibilities for introducing the public to science, in general, and optics, in particular.
At Georgia Tech the course on Optical Fabrication was dropped from the catalog because the equipment was obsolete in comparison with current technology. In addition, maintenance was becoming difficult and costly. However, there was still a need to provide students with a feel for the design decisions that must be made when specifying a component. We have designed a course to provide students experience in the use of design and simulation programs for optical systems and components. Three types of simulations were explored by the students: lens design, thin film design, and physical optics simulations. This combined lecture and laboratory introduced the student to commercial design packages and provide the background on the theory used in the simulations. A number of problems and projects have been devised to provide practice in the use of these programs. This paper is a report on the first offering and evaluations of the course by the students.
Optics is a Held that deals with sources, components, and detectors. Its practice requires that students be familiar with many techniques from the simple measurement of the radius of curvature of a lens surface with a dial gauge spherometer to the analysis of figure errors of the same surface using a phase-shifting interferometer. In this article we describe the laboratory courses available to students in the Applied Optics program in the School of Physics, which is part of the Center of Optical Science and Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The experiments and projects are intended to provide the student with experiences that will prepare them for work in optics after they graduate.
This is a description of a project in elementary school optics education that originated through a professional society, the Optical Society of America (OSA). The purpose of this paper is to show how the project was started, the process by which the OSA Optics Discovery Kit was finally produced and distributed, and the current efforts to use the kits and to extend the idea to other educational levels. Through this discussion it is hoped that others may find both description of the kit and its generation of use in their efforts to engage the interest of youth in science
The optical design space of some simple lenses is investigated systematically. Typical space topographies are visualized with 3-D graphics,
where the complete set of available solutions is clearly identified. The space characteristics are then studied and compared through the use of
several merit functions with differing degrees of complexity. A two-phase search algorithm, based on global optimization techniques, is proposed
here. In the first phase, using a coarse sampling approach, the program finds the favorable regions that correspond to potentially promising configurations. In the second phase, conventional optimization routines are used to find the best solutions in each region. Then an optimum solution
is determined according to the application at hand. The proposed algorithm is analyzed and compared to more conventional design approaches. A further refinement of the algorithm excludes from the systematic search some unfavorable configuration regions through the use of a simple expert
system. Search times are further reduced through parallel-processing methods. The algorithm provides overall information about a given design space and offers a selection of "best" solutions to choose from. As an example, it is applied to a triplet objective.
Global Optimization (GO) is an area of applied mathemetics that has been active for many years. A large variety of GO algorithms have been constructed in an effort to find a solution to the general GO problem. Some of these have proved to be successful on certain classes of problems. However no general deterministic algorithm exists that can locate the global optimum for every multidimensional problem. Traditionally in the lens design discipline the search for an optimum solution in the design space has been done by optimization methods. The conventional design methods are in principle local search methods and do not pmvide any global information on the design space. As the available computer power increases GO tools can be used also in optical design. A two phase search algorithm based on global optimization techniques is described. In a first phase using a coarse sampling approach the program finds the favorable regions that correspond to potentially promising configurations. In a second phase conventional optimization routines are used to find the best solutions in eh region. Then an optimum solution is determined according to the application at hand. The pro algorithm is analyzed and compared to more conventional design approaches. A further refmement of the algorithm excludes from the systematic search some unfavorable configuration regions through the use of a simple expert system. Search times are further reduced through parallel-processing methods. We believe this approach to lens design represents new initiative towards the determination of the optimum solution in any lens design problem. 1.
Inthgued by the multiplicity of solutions of a triplet lens David Shafer devised a problem to seek out the best solution for a four lens design. To simplify things all elements were made of BK7 glass so that the lens would work only at a single wavelength. This is a report on the response of members of the lens design community to this intriguing problem. After a profile of the participants the form of the best solutions will be discussed. The prescriptions for the lenses with evaluated spot sizes below 3 im are given. 1.
Diffractive optics provides an additional tool for optical systems design and a whole new range of optical components for optical engineering. This course introduces the basic principles of diffractive optics. It describes the techniques used to design, fabricate, and test these devices. Techniques for low cost, moderate resolution pattern generation using desktop publishing tools are presented.