GIANO-B is the high resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), which started its regular operations in October 2017. Here we present GIANO-B Online Data Reduction Software (DRS) operating at the Telescope.
GIANO-B Online DRS is a complete end-to-end solution for the spectrograph real-time data handling. The Online DRS provides management, processing and archival of GIANO-B scientific and calibration data. Once the instrument control software acquires the exposure ramp segments from the detector, the DRS ensures the complete data flow until the final data products are ingested into the science archive. A part of the Online DRS is GOFIO software, which performs the reduction process from ramp-processed 2D spectra to extracted and calibrated 1D spectra.
A User Interface (UI) developed as a part of the Online DRS provides basic information on the final reduced data, thus allowing the observer to take decisions in real-time during the night and adjust the observational strategy as needed.
GIARPS (GIAno and haRPS) is a project devoted to have on the same focal station of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) both high resolution spectrographs, HARPS–N (VIS) and GIANO–B (NIR), working simultaneously. This could be considered the first and unique worldwide instrument providing cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy at a resolution of 50,000 in the NIR range and 115,000 in the VIS and over in a wide spectral range (0.383−2.45 μm) in a single exposure. The science case is very broad, given the versatility of such an instrument and its large wavelength range. A number of outstanding science cases encompassing mainly extra-solar planet science starting from rocky planets search and hot Jupiters to atmosphere characterization can be considered. Furthermore both instruments can measure high precision radial velocities by means the simultaneous thorium technique (HARPS–N) and absorbing cell technique (GIANO–B) in a single exposure. Other science cases are also possible. GIARPS, as a brand new observing mode of the TNG started after the moving of GIANO–A (fiber fed spectrograph) from Nasmyth–A to Nasmyth–B where it was re–born as GIANO–B (no more fiber feed spectrograph). The official Commissioning finished on March 2017 and then it was offered to the community. Despite the work is not finished yet. In this paper we describe the preliminary scientific results obtained with GIANO–B and GIARPS observing mode with data taken during commissioning and first open time observations.
The NIR echelle spectrograph GIANO-B at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo is equipped with a fully automated online DRS: part of this pipeline is the GOFIO reduction software, that processes all the observed data, from the calibrations to the nodding or stare images. GOFIO reduction process includes bad pixel and cosmic removal, flat-field and blaze correction, optimal extraction, wavelength calibration, nodding or stare group processing. An offline version of GOFIO will allow the users to adapt the reduction to their needs, and to compute the radial velocity using telluric lines as a reference system. GIANO-B may be used simultaneously with HARPS-N in the GIARPS observing mode to obtain high-resolution spectra in a wide wavelength range (383-2450 nm) with a single acquisition. In this framework, GOFIO, as part of the online DRS, provides fast and reliable data reduction during the night, in order to compare the infrared and visible observations on the fly.
The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project is an international effort to build the world's largest radio telescope, with eventually over a square kilometer of collecting area. For SKA Phase 1, Australia will host the low-frequency instrument with more than 500 stations, each containing around 250 individual antennas, whilst South Africa will host an array of close to 200 dishes. The scale of the SKA represents a huge leap forward in both engineering and research and development towards building and delivering a unique instrument, with the detailed design and preparation now well under way. As one of the largest scientific endeavors in history, the SKA will brings together close to 100 organizations from 20 countries. Every aspect of the design and development of such a large and complex instrument requires state-of-the-art technology and innovative approach. This poster (or paper) addresses some aspects of the SKA monitor and control system, and in particular describes the development and test results of the CSP Local Monitoring and Control prototype. At the SKA workshop held in April 2015, the SKA monitor and control community has chosen TANGO Control System as a framework, for the implementation of the SKA monitor and control. This decision will have a large impact on Monitor an Control development of SKA. As work is on the way to incorporate TANGO Control System in SKA is in progress, we started to development a prototype for the SKA Central Signal Processor to mitigate the associated risks. In particular we now have developed a uniform class schema proposal for the sub-Element systems of the SKA-CSP.
Giano is a Cryogenic Spectrograph located in T.N.G. (Spain) and commissioned in 2013. It works in the range 950-2500
nm with a resolving power of 50000.
This instrument was designed and built for direct feeding from the telescope . However, due to constraints imposed on
the telescope interfacing during the pre-commissioning phase, it had to be positioned on the rotating building, far from
the telescope focus. Therefore, a new interface to the telescope, based on IR-transmitting ZBLAN fibers with 85μm core,
was developed. Originally designed to work directly at the f/11 nasmyth focus of the telescope, in 2011 it has decided to
use a fiber to feed it.
The beam from the telescope is focused on a double fiber boundle by a Preslit Optical Bench attached to the Nasmith A
interface of the telescope. This Optical Bench contains the fiber feeding system and other important features as a guiding
system, a fiber viewer, a fiber feed calibration lamp and a nodding facility between the two fibers. The use of two fibers
allow us to have in the echellogram two spectrograms side by side in the same acquisition: one of the star and the other
of the sky or simultaneously to have the star and a calibration lamp. Before entering the cryostat the light from the fiber
is collected by a second Preslit Optical Bench attached directly to the Giano cryostat: on this bench the correct f-number
to illuminate the cold stop is generated and on the same bench is placed an image slicer to increase the efficiency of the
GIANO is the high resolution near IR spectrograph recently commissioned at the 3.58m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in
La Palma (Spain). GIANO is the first worldwide instrument providing cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy at a
resolution of 50,000 over the 0.95 – 2.45 micron spectral range in a single exposure. There are outstanding science cases
in the research fields of exo-planets, Galactic stars and stellar populations that could strongly benefit from GIANO
observations down to a magnitude limit comparable to that of 2MASS. The instrument includes a fully cryogenic
spectrograph and an innovative fiber system transmitting out to the K band. It also represents a formidable laboratory to
test performances and prototype solutions for the next generation of high resolution near IR spectrographs at the ELTs.
First results from sky tests at the telescope and science verification occurred between July 2012 and October 2013 will
GIANO is a high resolution (R50,000) IR spectrograph which provides a quasi-complete coverage of the 0.95-
2.5μm wavelengths range in a single exposure. The instrument was integrated and tested in Arcetri-INAF
(Florence, Italy) and will be commisioned at the 3.58m TNG Italian telescope in La Palma. The major scientific goals include the search for rocky planets with habitable conditions around low-mass stars, quantitative spectroscopy of brown dwarfs, accurate chemical abundances of high metallicity stars and stellar clusters. This presentation describes the status of the instrument and presents the first results obtained in laboratory during the acceptance tests.
GIANO is a high resolution (R≃50,000) cryogenic IR spectrograph covering the 0.95-2.5μm wavelengths range.
It is equipped with a Hawaii-II PACE array. We present the main results and performances of the detector and
acquisition system. We also describe a few special features which have been developed to optimize the noise
performances and minimize spurious effects intrinsic to the detector, such as reset anomaly, cross-talking and
MOONS is a new conceptual design for a multi-object spectrograph for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT)
which will provide the ESO astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to serve a wide
range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies. The instrument foresees 1000 fibers which can be
positioned on a field of view of 500 square-arcmin. The sky-projected diameter of each fiber is at least 1 arcsec
and the wavelengths coverage extends from 0.8 to 1.8 μm.
This paper presents and discusses the design of the spectrometer, a task which is allocated to the Italian National
Institute of Astrophysics (INAF).
The baseline design consists of two identical cryogenic spectrographs. Each instrument collects the light from
over 500 fibers and feeds, through dichroics, 3 spectrometers covering the "I" (0.79-0.94 μm), "YJ" (0.94-1.35
μm) and "H" (1.45-1.81 μm) bands.
The low resolution mode provides a complete spectrum with a resolving power ranging from R'4,000 in the
YJ-band, to R'6,000 in the H-band and R'8,000 in the I-band. A higher resolution mode with R'20,000 is
also included. It simultaneously covers two selected spectral regions within the J and H bands.
Giano is a high resolution (R'50,000) infrared spectrograph with a near-complete coverage of the 0.95-2.5 microns
wavelengths range. It was assembled in Arcetri-INAF (Florence) and is beeing shipped to the its final destination
at the TNG telescope (La Palma)
We present our measurements of internal wavelength stability of Giano spectra. We are using a new approach
which gives both the wavelength and field tilts. We also show the comparison with the usual mono-dimensional
An Optical Frequency Comb-based apparatus, to be used as a calibration system of the IR GIANO astronomical spectrograph, is the aim of the Astro-Comb project. We plan to obtain, starting from a comb repetition rate of 100 MHz, a final calibration spectrum of lines equally spaced by 16 GHz over the spectral range from 1 μm to 2 μm. Such a system is able to overcome some limits of the present day calibrators, allowing to complement a high resolution spectrograph, such as GIANO, for precision measurements like the detection of extra-solar rocky planets.
GIANO-TNG is a cryogenic high resolution infrared spectrometer whose optics include large aspheric mirrors
and cross-dispersing prisms mounted over a ≃1.5 m2 aluminum bench. To achieve the highest possible spectral
stability and repeatability the bench is internally filled with liquid nitrogen whose boil-off pressure is actively
controlled and stabilized to a fraction of mbar. The bench is isostatically mounted inside a ≃2.5 m3 cryostat.
We present the characteristics and performances of the cryogenic system of GIANO which include, in particular,
a temperature uniformity and long-term stability of a few mK and a remarkably low consumption of liquid
nitrogen (less than 1 liter/hr).
GIANO is an infrared (0.9-2.5 μm cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer designed to achieve high resolution, high throughput, wide band coverage and very high stability for accurate radial velocity measurements. It also includes polarimetric capabilities and a low resolution mode with RS ~ 400 and complete 0.75-2.5 μm coverage. This makes it a very versatile, common user instrument which will be permanently mounted and available on the Nasmyth-B foci of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) located at Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory (ORM), La Palma, Spain. The project is fast-track and relies on well known, relatively standard technologies. It has been recognized as one of the top priority instrumental projects of INAF (the Italian National Institute of Astronomy) and received its first financing for the phase-A study in October 2003. Integration in the laboratory is planned to start before the end of 2006, commissioning at the telescope is foreseen within 2007 and scientific operations in 2008. One of the most important scientific goals is the search for rocky planets with habitable conditions around low-mass stars. If completed on time, GIANO will be the first and only IR instrument operating worldwide
providing the combination of efficiency, spectral resolution, wavelength coverage and stability necessary for this type of research. With its unique combination of high and low resolution modes, GIANO will also be a very flexible common-user instrument ideal e.g. for quantitative spectroscopy of brown dwarfs, stars and stellar clusters as well as for the determination of the spectral energy distribution of faint/red objects such as high redshift galaxies. The expected limiting magnitudes are such that GIANO will be able to deliver good quality HR spectra of any 2MASS object and LR spectra of any object detected in the UKIDSS large area survey.
Giano is an infrared (0.9-2.5 μm) cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer designed to achieve high throughput, high resolving power, wide band coverage and high accuracy. Giano will be a common user instrument which will be permanently mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), located at Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory (ORM), La Palma, Spain. Giano successfully concluded the development phase, and we present here some of the solutions adopted in the focal plane electronics, which take care of detector control and data acquisition and handling.
We present the general software design and acquisition facilities of GIANO, an ultra-stable IR echelle spectrometer
optimized both for low (R ≃ 500) and high (R ≃ 50, 000) resolution, that will be mounted at Nasmyth-B focus
of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG).
We describe the high-level software structure of the instrument, the user interface characteristics and the control
of all subsystems. The management of GIANO sensors and controls of the mechanical movements is indeed a
crucial issue that is handled by dedicated tasks. Monitoring of all these parameters is performed by means of
separated processes running in background on the control workstation (PC).
In this paper we will also schematically discuss the software for the instrument control, status display and setup,
the quick look facility and the pipeline for data reduction.
GIANO is an infrared (0.9-2.5 μm) cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer designed to achieve high throughput, high resolving power, wide band coverage and high accuracy radial velocity measurements. It also includes polarimetric capabilities and a low resolution mode that make it a very versatile, common user instrument which will be permanently mounted and available at one of the Nasmyth foci of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) located at Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory (ORM), La Palma, Spain. GIANO was selected by INAF as the top priority instrument among those proposed within the Second Generation Instrumentation Plan of the TNG. More information on this project can be found at the web page http://www.bo.astro.it/giano
The instrumentation for VLT/VLTI 1 facility of the European Southern Observatory at Paranal (Chile)includes the infrared beam-combiner called AMBER, that covers the near infrared bands up to 2.5 μm. The cold spectrograph we describe is the AMBER subsystem responsible of wavelength analysis and several other functions, all of them performed by means of optics, analyzers, and mechanisms working at the temperature of liquid nitrogen boiling at atmospheric pressure. The cryo-mechanical design of the spectrograph we describe here
used extensively the methods of finite element analysis and the laboratory tests validated this approach. The final optical quality we measured in the laboratory before shipping the instrument to Grenoble or integration (December 2002),is well inside the specification the AMBER staff assigned to the spectrograph. Simulations show that its total contribution to visibility loss of AMBER is less than 2%.
Limiting magnitude of A.O. reference stars is set by wavefront sensor intrinsic noise. Recently available avalanche intensified CCD detectors allow single photon event detection (photon counting) virtually free from readout noise. The paper describes a program started in spring 2002, aiming to use a Marconi L3CCD as a wavefront sensor for A.O.