Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey (ARIEL) is the M4 ESA mission to launch in 2028. ARIEL is based on a 1 m class telescope optimized for spectroscopy in the waveband between 1.95 μm and 7.8 μm (main instrument), operating in cryogenic conditions in the range 50 - 60 K. For the main mirror substrate, the Aluminum 6061 alloy has been chosen as baseline material after a trade- off. The large size of the mirror however (0.6 square meters) presents specific production challenges concerning opto-mechanical stability in cryogenic applications. To minimize risk, the machining, polishing, thermal treatments and coating processes will first be tested on flat samples of 150 mm of diameter and then applied to a full-size demonstrator mirror, before finalizing the design and producing the flight mirror. This study, following a review of existing literature on fabrication of Al 6061 mirrors for spaceborne IR applications will characterize the optical properties of the samples after each phase of thermal treatment with the goal of determining an optimal process for material stress release, figuring and surface finishing and final optical stability in the operating cryogenic environment.
MAO (MAORY Adaptive Optics) is the a developed numerical simulation tool for adaptive optics. It was created especially to simulate the performance of the MAORY MCAO module of the Extremely Large Telescope. It is a full end-to-end Monte-Carlo code able to perform different flavors of adaptive optics simulation. We used it to investigate the performance of a the MAORY and some specific issue related to calibration, acquisition and operation strategies. As, MAORY, MAO will implement Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics combining Laser Guide Stars (LGS) and Natural Guide Stars (NGS) measurements. The implementation of the reference truth WFS completes the scheme. The simulation tool implements the various aspect of the MAORY in an end to end fashion. The code has been developed using IDL and use libraries in C++ and CUDA for efficiency improvements. Here we recall the code architecture, we describe the modeled instrument components and the control strategies implemented in the code.
MAORY is one of the approved instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope. It is an adaptive optics module, enabling high-angular resolution observations in the near infrared by real-time compensation of the wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence and other disturbances such as wind action on the telescope. An overview of the instrument design is given in this paper.
The LOR WFS module will provide low and medium order sensing for the MAORY MCAO mode. It is composed of three identical units, hosting two Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors each: an infrared 2×2 sub-apertures, used for low order modes, and a visible 10×10 sub-apertures for the slow truth sensing needed to correct the LGS WFS measurements. In this paper we show the current design of the NGS WFS control electronics and the interfaces with the MICADO instrument.
MAORY is the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics module for the European ELT. It will provide a wide-field correction for the first-light instrument MICADO. The Low-Order wavefront modes will be sensed on 3 Natural Guide Stars with Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensors, so-called the LO WFS. In the presented work, we focus on the numerical study of the main aspects that depend on the LO WFS design and operational use: low-order sensing performance and sky coverage.
MAORY (Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY) is one of the four instruments for the ELT (Extremely Large Telescope) approved for construction. It is an adaptive optics module able to compensate the wavefront disturbances affecting the scientific observations, achieving high strehl ratio and high sky coverage. MAORY will be located on the straight-through port of the telescope Nasmyth platform and shall re-image the telescope focal plane to a wide field camera (MICADO) and a possible future second instrument. A trade-off study among different mechanical design options for the main mechanical structure has been carried out. This paper outlines an overview of the mechanical design that gives a better result in terms of stability, vibrations and manufacturing.
MAORY is the ELT-MCAO system providing first-light wide-field correction for the near infrared imager and spectrograph MICADO. This paper provides an overview of the systems engineering processes and tools implemented to MAORY project during preliminary design phase and it illustrates, with some practical examples, the role of MAORY technical budgets to derive requirements on subsystems. One of the critical activities in systems engineering is the requirements managing. In line with this, the MAORY team devotes a significant effort to this activity, which follows a well-established process. This involves the MAORY requirements break-down to subsystems level and from here down to subsystems procurements specifications. This paper also presents an overview of the MAORY Technical Budgets. One task of the System Engineering is to manage the technical budgets at system level combining the contributors at subsystems level to meet the overall requirements.
In this paper we present the structure, organization and risk management of the MAORY Consortium, an Italian-French collaboration for the design and construction of the adaptive optics module for the European Large Telescope.
MAORY will be the multi-adaptive optics module feeding the high resolution camera and spectrograph MICADO at the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) first light. In order to ensure high and homogeneous image quality over the MICADO field of view and high sky coverage, the baseline is to operate wavefront sensing using six Sodium Laser Guide Stars. The Laser Guide Star Wavefront Sensor (LGS WFS) is the MAORY sub-system devoted to real-time measurement of the high order wavefront distortions. In this paper we describe the MAORY LGS WFS current design, including opto-mechanics, trade-offs and possible future improvements.
MAORY (Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY) and MICADO (MCAO Imaging CamerA for Deep Observations) will perform the science in the Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics mode of the ELT (Extremely Large Telescope). One of their goals is the multi-object differential astrometry which requires low optical distortion and diffraction limited aberrations. To align MAORY, an automate method will be used during the integration of the instrument and could be part of the calibration strategy at the ELT site. This paper describes the method and the ray-tracing simulations carried out to validate the algorithm. Even in presence of different error sources, the method works in a large range of misalignments bringing the system close to the nominal performances.
The Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY (MAORY) is foreseen to be installed at the straight through focus over the Nasmyth platform of the future Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). MAORY has to re-image the telescope focal plane with diffraction limited quality and low geometric distortion, over a field of view of 20 arcsec diameter, for a wavelength range between 0.8 μm and 2.4 μm. Good and uniform Strehl ratio, accomplished with high sky coverage, is required for the wide field science. Two exit ports will be fed by MAORY. The first one is for a wide field Camera that is supposed to be placed on a gravity invariant port with an unvignetted FoV of 53 arcsec x 53 arcsec where diffraction limited optical quality (< 54nm RMS of wavefront error at the wavelength of 1 μm) and very low field distortion (< 0.1% RMS) must be delivered. The requirements regarding the optical quality, distortion and optical interfaces, together with the desire of reducing the number of reflecting surfaces (and consequently the thermal background), optics wavefront error (WFE), overall size, weight and possibly cost, drove the design to have 2 Deformable Mirrors (DMs) with optical power. The Post Focal Relay (PFR) is also required to split the 589 nm wavelength light of the Laser Guide Stars (LGS), used for high order wavefront sensing, by means of a dichroic that lets the light of 6 LGSs, arranged on a circle of about 90 arcsec diameter, pass through and reflects science beam. Behind the dichroic an objective creates the LGS image plane for the WFSs channel. We present in this paper the optical design and the tolerance analysis of the PFR and the objective. The tolerance analysis concerning the manufacturing and the alignment precision is also shown.
MAORY (Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY) will be the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the ELT first light. MAORY is a post focal relay optics and supports the MICADO imager and spectrograph. The tolerance process of MAORY is one of the most important step in the instrument design since it is intended to ensure that MAORY requested performances are satisfied when the final assembled instrument is operative. At the end, the assignment of tolerances to the various opto-mechanical parameters should be a trade-off between final cost of the system and its resulting performances. This paper describes the logic behind the tolerance analysis starting from definition of quantitative figures of merit for MAORY requirements and ending with estimation of MAORY performances perturbed by opto-mechanical tolerances. The method used to estimate tolerances takes care of compensation of errors during assembly/alignment procedure and uses a Root-Sum-Squared (RSS) merit function to combine independent error contributions. There are two requirements that limit the allowable changes of opto-mechanical parameters. The Root-Mean-Squared wavefront error (RMS WFE) and the optical distortion. The first one must satisfy diffraction limited performance over the MICADO Field-of-View (FoV) while the second one must satisfy high astrometric accuracy and precision. As criterion for tolerancing, the defined merit function considers the RMS wavefront referred to star centroids and adds boundary constraints on the compensators and geometric distortion in MICADO FoV. To evaluate the impact of tolerances on astrometry, a Monte Carlo approach was followed validating the expected performances from a pure opto-mechanical point of view.
The Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY (MAORY) for the European Extremely Large Telescope is planned to be located on the straight-through port of the telescope Nasmyth platform and shall re-image the telescope focal plane to a wide field camera (MICADO) and a possible future second instrument. By means of natural and artificial (laser) reference sources for wavefront sensing, and of deformable mirrors for wavefront correction, MAORY shall be able to compensate the wavefront disturbances affecting the scientific observations, achieving high Strehl ratio and high sky coverage. A trade-off study among different design options has been carried out addressing optical performance at the exit ports (wave front error, field distortion, throughput), structure stability, interface constraints (mass, size, location and accessibility of the two client instruments), and the overall adaptive optics performance. We discuss the baseline configuration of the opto-mechanical design.
MAORY is one of the four instruments for the E-ELT approved for construction. It is an adaptive optics module offering two compensation modes: multi-conjugate and single-conjugate adaptive optics. The project has recently entered its phase B. A system-level overview of the current status of the project is given in this paper.
The Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY (MAORY) is and Adaptive Optics module to be mounted on the ESO European-Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). It is an hybrid Natural and Laser Guide System that will perform the correction of the atmospheric turbulence volume above the telescope feeding the Multi-AO Imaging Camera for Deep Observations Near Infrared spectro-imager (MICADO). We developed an end-to-end Monte- Carlo adaptive optics simulation tool to investigate the performance of a the MAORY and the calibration, acquisition, operation strategies. MAORY will implement Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics combining Laser Guide Stars (LGS) and Natural Guide Stars (NGS) measurements. The simulation tool implement the various aspect of the MAORY in an end to end fashion. The code has been developed using IDL and use libraries in C++ and CUDA for efficiency improvements. Here we recall the code architecture, we describe the modeled instrument components and the control strategies implemented in the code.
The Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope has been designed to achieve uniform compensation of the atmospheric turbulence effects on a wide field of view in the near infrared. The design realized in the Phase A of the project is undergoing major revision in order to define a robust baseline in view of the next phases of the project. An overview of the on-going activities is presented.
The present paper focuses on the development of an optimized version of the Proximity Electronics (PE) for dust
analysers based on static light scattering. This kind of instruments, aimed to the systematic measurement of the size of
dust grains in Martian atmosphere, was developed by the Cosmic Physics and Planetology Group at the INAF
Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte (OAC) and University Parthenope (LFC group), in Naples, Italy. One of
these instruments, the MEDUSA Experiment, was selected for the Humboldt Payload of the ExoMars mission, the first
mission to Mars of the ESA Aurora Programme. Thereafter, this mission was revised because of increasing costs and
lack of funds and the MEDUSA experiment has been completely re-engineered to meet more demanding constraints of
mass and power consumption. The dust analyser under development is named MicroMED, as it is a lighter and more
compact version of MEDUSA. MicroMED is provided with an Optical System (OS) based on the same concept of the
one present in MEDUSA, but with a low power PE and low power laser source. This paper reports the features and the
tests results of three versions of low power PE developed for MicroMED, and also compares two basic approaches, one
based on a linear amplifier, derived from the solution implemented in two different MEDUSA breadboards (B/Bs), and
the other one based on a logarithmic amplifier, with better performance in terms of compactness and low power
This paper is about VST active optics system design, specifications and status. The VST is a modified Ritchey-Chretien wide field Alt-Az telescope with a corrector camera (1 square degree field of view), so when all optical components are correctly aligned, only residual aberrations in whole field are present. The major amounts of these aberrations can be introduced by gravitational and thermo opto-mechanical deformations and mirror misalignments. For these reasons active control of the primary mirror shape and secondary mirror position are required to lessen optical aberrations. The aim of active optics is to correct all optical telescope errors in order to make them small compared with external seeing. The VST is essentially compensated for static or slow frequency deformations and misalignments with a band pass from dc to 1/30 Hz, since the corresponding integration time is sufficient to integrate out the external seeing, giving a round image corresponding to the integrated external seeing quality. VST decentering, coma and defocus are corrected by mean of a secondary mirror position control system (a two-stage hexapode system) and spherical, astigmatism, quad-astigmatism and tri-coma are corrected by mean of M1 mirror shape deformation (axial and radial support system). For optical aberrations and guiding measurement an optical sensing arm has been designed.
This paper concerns optomechanics tolerances specifications for VST telescope. It shows the strategy of tolerances definition for optomechanical systems. These prescriptions are the baseline for development and tests of VST telescope optomechanic components. The telescope is provided with an active optics control system, so some tolerances may be relaxed, respect to passive systems designs since they can be actively compensated. Gravitational and thermal deformations have been also considered. The design error budget strategy is described. Manufacturing, mounting and alignment tolerances have been evaluated within the whole telescope image quality error budget, in terms of rms spot radius. Since the telescope is seeing limited, effects of atmospheric seeing have also been considered in the error budget in terms of CIR. Do to its large field of view (1 degree square), the VST optical design (optomechanics tolerances included) is the first source of error if compared to a classical telescope design that has a small field of view. The overall optical quality depends also on telescope configuration (ADC and one-lens corrector or two-lens corrector configuration) and on observational zenith angle (0÷50°).
The effects of atmospheric differential refraction on astrophysical measurements are well known. In particular, as a ray of light passes through the atmosphere, its direction is altered by the effects of atmospheric refraction. The amount of this effect depends basically on the variation of the refractive index along the path of the ray. The real accuracy needed in the atmosphere model and in the calculation of the correction to be applied is of course, considerably worse, especially at large zenith angles. On the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) the use of an Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC) is foreseen at a wide zenith distance range. This paper describes the software design and implementation aspects regarding the analytical correction law discovered to correct the refraction effect during observations with VST.
This paper shows criteria and strategy followed for the optics design of VST telescope, and foreseen image quality. The optics design has been optimized in order to achieve the high required image quality on the base of main scientific requirements, mechanics constraints coming from the wide CCD mosaic camera and dimensional requirements. Manufacturing reliability integrated operational efficiency, and costs optimization criteria have been also taken into account. The VST optics has been designed in order to have a 2.61 m Alt.az telescope operating from U to I bands with an excellent image quality (80% of Encircled Energy enclosed in less than two pixels) on a wide field of view (1° x 1°). The telescope will have a very high resolution (0.21"/pixel) with a pixel size of 15 μm;. The peculiarity of VST optics design is that telescope configuration is not a pure Ritchey - Chretien, but it is integrated with two different refracting correctors in order to minimize residual field aberrations. One corrector is optimized for observations at small zenith angles (U-I bands), while the other one includes an ADC providing high quality images until zenith angles of 50° (B-I bands). This corrector is a very useful and innovative integrated facility. The optics is being manufactured from Zeiss/LZOS. The telescope is going to be mounted in Napoli before shipment to Chile where it will be installed near the giants VLT units and will be a dedicated wide field imaging facility operating in narrow and wide visible bands
We describe the procedures adopted to realize the fiber unit for feeding the near IR multi-object spectrometer GOHSS. Since a scarce literature is available on this subject, all the steps of the fabrication processes are explained and documented through a detailed illustrative material: in particular the polishing methods of the fiber ends are addressed along with the criteria for evaluating the achieved results; the preparation and application of the ferrules; the matching with the input micro-lens; finally, the laboratory tests to measure the focal ratio degradation of each fiber are presented aiming also to certify the quality of the realized device.
We describe the current status and technical aspects of the GOHSS (Galileo OH Subtracted Spectrograph) project. Here we point out the most critical items and how we have implemented innovative technical solutions to fulfill the compelling requirements imposed by both the optical tolerances and the demands of a high sensitivity. In particular we examine the camera lens mechanics realized in ultra low expansion quartz; the refrigerator system; the IR array mount realized in an unconventional way; the effort put in procuring optical devices with quite large efficiencies. We are also developing the data reduction package along with the instrument simulator: the optimized procedures and the results on the visibility function of galaxies are given as well. Currently the instrument is in the integration phase at the laboratories of the Astronomical Observatory of Rome and the commissioning phase at the telescope is expected to start at the beginning of year 2003.
The VLT Survey Telescope (VST) is a cooperative program between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the INAF Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory (OAC), Naples, for the study, design, and realization of a 2.6-m wide-field optical imaging telescope to be operated at the Paranal Observatory, Chile. The VST has been specifically designed to carry out stand-alone observations in the UV to I spectral range and to supply target databases for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The telescope design, manufacturing and integration are responsibility of OAC. The telescope is in Cassegrain configuration and for this reason the primary mirror cell represents one of the most complex telescope subsystems, designed to host a large amount of auxiliary sub-systems and to support a wide field camera. The paper describes the solutions adopted as a result of an integrated optimized optical and mechanical design.
We describe the current status of the technical aspects of the GOHSS project. It consists of a fiber-fed NIR spectrograph for faint objects. It will be a second-light instrument for the Nasmyth focus of the 3.5m Galileo telescope located on La Palma. GOHSS is an innovative instrument which accomplishes OH night-sky subtraction, differently from the hardware solution used by other devices; it provides a multiechelle design with software OH subtraction capable of yielding about 25 spectra in the z,J and H bands at an effective spectral resolution of about 4000, which is necessary to strongly reduce the impact of atmospheric OH lines. The GOHSS design is completed and the operative phase is already started through the procurement of the most important components. We have also started to develop the data reduction package for the instrument and the first result of the 1D approach as presented.
The VST (Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope) is an 2.6 m class Alt-Az telescope which will be installed in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Paranal site, Chile. It has been designed by the Technology Working Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Italy. The VST is an 1 degree(s) X 1 degree(s) wide-field imaging facility planned to supply databases for the ESO VLT science and carry out stand-alone observations in the UV to I spectral range starting in the year 2001. All the solutions adopted in the VST design comply to the ESO VLT standards. This paper reports a technical overview of the telescope design.
COHSI was successfully commissioned at the United Kingdom IR Telescope on Mauna Kea during a seven night observing run which coincided with this conference. Here we briefly describe the instrument and give a preliminary report on its performance at this time. The suppression optics and masks worked extremely well and the instrument background was found to be very low.
The encoder is the most used angular transducer in position control applications, such as the main axes position control of a telescope. In astronomical applications a very high precision in axes control is required. So a good encoder system design is essential to satisfy the requirements settled by the scientific goals. Today very good encode system are provided by several suppliers, with multiple readouts and error compensation capabilities into increase the reading precision and lessen the errors. Nevertheless during the lifetime of the system some unexpected errors can arise. In this paper some techniques to recognize, analyze and lessen the unavoidable encoder system error are described, with reference to some case studied.