Decision Tree Classification (DTC) is one organizational form of the multi-level recognition system, which changes the
complicated classification into simple categories, and then gradually resolves it. The paper does LULC Decision Tree
Classification research on some areas of Gansu Province in the west of China. With the mid-resolution remote sensing
data as the main data resource, the authors adopt decision-making classification technology method, taking advantage of
its character that it imitates the processing pattern of human judgment and thinking and its fault-tolerant character, and
also build the decision tree LULC classical pattern. The research shows that the methods and techniques can increase the
level of automation and accuracy of LULC information extraction, and better carry out LULC information extraction on
the research areas. The main aspects of the research are as follows: 1. We collected training samples firstly, established a
comprehensive database which is supported by remote sensing and ground data; 2. By utilizing CART system, and
based on multiply sources and time phases remote sensing data and other assistance data, the DTC's technology
effectively combined the unsupervised classification results with the experts' knowledge together. The method and
procedure for distilling the decision tree information were specifically developed. 3. In designing the decision tree, based
on the various object of types classification rules, we established and pruned DTC'S model for the purpose of achieving
effective treatment of subdivision classification, and completed the land use and land cover classification of the research
areas. The accuracy of evaluation showed that the classification accuracy reached upwards 80%.
The principle and methodology to monitor the heavy metal pollution using hyperspectral remote sensing are put forward
based on the study areas, copper mine in De-Xing and tin ore in GeJiu, and selected plants, China Sumac, Sweet
Wormwood Herb, and Nephrolepis Cordifolia. In the areas defined by former information, vegetation samples and
corresponding spectral data are gathered. The samples are then analyzed in chemical lab, telling us to what extent the
vegetation is polluted by heavy metal. The spectral curves are also processed, and some spectral parameters are extracted,
such as reflectance, blue-shift extent, position of red-edge, vegetation index, band-depth. Then the regression model from
spectral characteristic parameters to heavy metal content can be built. At last, the conclusion can be attained. In copper
mine area, the vegetation is polluted by seven kinds of heavy metals. As far as China Sumac, the reflectance of red band
correlates the Pb content well. The reflectance of all study plants at 1240nm and 725/675(nm) correlates heavy metal
content well. The reflectance of 450nm, 550nm, 670nm, 760nm, and 1240nm can be liner combined as a parameter to
monitor heavy metal pollution. Besides, some band-depth can also be combined as parameters using "Enter". In a word,
as an advanced technique to monitor environmental pollution, hyperspectral remote sensing has wild perspective.
According to the synthetical analysis of remote sensing information and geophysical data, the late-reformation
characteristics of the South Ordos basin in the Late Mesozoic and the Cenozoic is researched with the former
research results and the field work. The result shows that the margin and inside of the basin are all reformed
since late Mesozoic. Two different kinds of structure belt exist around the Ordos Basin. They are compressional
thrust nappe belt and extensional faulted depression belt. The ring structure which is found in the southern Ordos
basin has a diameter of more than 300km, and its movement and rotation are on the assumption that the ring has
dominated by the mantle plume in the deep earth and relative movement on the surface of earth. It is testified
that the ring structure is a relatively independent block, and it is significant for the coexistence of multi-energy
resources in the same basin. There are also differences between the south and north part of Ordos basin in large
scale lifting. That is the reason why there are differences between the south and north part of Ordos basin in the
distribution of mineral resources. The seismic profile and the magnetotelluric sounding data of the ring structure
show that there is a high depth of the Moho boundary comparing with the north part of Ordos basin, it convinced
us that the mantle plume lifting does exist in the location of ring structure in the south part of Ordos basin. The
lifting movement of Ordos basin in the Late Mesozoic and the Cenozoic may be an important factor of the
changing channel of Yellow River cross the Ordos basin, it is significant for the formation and evolution of
Texture is the key character of remote sensing image classification and a lot of studies on this have been done. This
article analyzes the current study situation of remote sensing image classification methods and extracting textural
information. Moreover, it analyzes the theory of geostatistics. Based on the geostatistics theory, the variogram is applied
to extracting textural information of remote sensing image in this article. It has been proven that the textural information
can be used to classification by means of test. At the same time, this article discusses the size of computation window,
computation direction and step according to the practical application and puts forward to an auto-adaptive method to
determine the size of computation window. In addition, it advances a new method to compute textural information,
weighted variogram. Considering that the neural network classification has no limitation to data, this study adopts the
back propagation neural network method to classify and recognize the matter combining the textural information
extracted by variogram and spectral information. Then the classification results are compared with those gained by
maximum likelihood method. The analysis result shows that this method can improve the classification precision.
In this paper, the big coal mining area Yanzhou is selected as the typical research area. According to the
special dynamic change characteristic of the environment in the mining area, the environmental dynamic changes are
timely monitored with the remote sensing detection technology. Environmental special factors, such as vegetation, water,
air, land-over, are extracted by the professional remote sensing image processing software, then the spatial information is
managed and analyzed in the geographical information system (GIS) software. As the result, the dynamic monitor and
query for change information is achieved, and the special environmental factor dynamic change maps are protracted. On
the base of the data coming from the remote sensing image, GIS and the traditional environment monitoring, the
environmental quality is appraised with the method of indistinct matrix analysis, the multi-index and the analytical
hierarchy process. At last, those provide the credible science foundation for the local environment appraised and the
sustained development. In addition, this paper apply the hyper spectrum graphs by the FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer,
together with the analytical data from environmental chemical, to study the growth of vegetation which were seed in the
land-over consisting of gangue, which is a new method to study the impact to vegetation that are growing in the soil.
Take the Dawenhe River for an example, based on the dynamic analysis of the suspended mudsand flow where the river pushes into the Dongpinghu Lake, according to different sensors and multi-temporal remote sensing images, this paper discusses its impacts on the lake deposition near the Dawenhe River estuary, and points out the cause of forming and development of the delta. On the foundation of the data from experiments at lab and the field test outdoors, this paper analyses the relation between the content of mudsand and max wavelength by the high spectrum, and together with the relativity between the consistency of the mudsand and the satellitic remote sensing image, more precisely quantitative formula is achieved.
With the growing development of the computer, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS), multi-data fusion is becoming more and more important in data processing. In this paper, we are trying to fuse RS images of different time, different resolutions with geophysical data such as aero magnetic data and gravitational data and geochemical data of Au, Ag, Cu, As, Pb and Zn elements. By processing RS images, we get the surface lithological and structural information relating to the gold forming. By processing the geophysical data and geochemical data, we get the information about the gold distribution as well as the environment and geological factors controlling the gold under the ground. By the fusion of all these data, we get both the gold information hiding in the surface and under the ground. After all these work, we use GIS to manage, analyze and display all these results, whether they are raster data, vector data or attribute data. On the basis of all these, we finally define the hopeful areas of the gold that serve as valuable bases for gold exploration.
Through the spectrum energy as its base, marine remote sensing technique can transfer the existing forms and variety information of seawater medium and energy. With the development of remote sensing technique especially quantitative analysis, the research of spectrum characteristic is appealing more and more attention. Surface feature information is becoming much abundant when the data, from the previous AVHRR data, CZCS data to nowadays SeaWiFS data and MODIS data, are available. And the extraction, interpretation and model establishment of remote sensing information depend on marine spectrum characteristics. Marine remote sensing acquires data in many very narrow, continuous spectral bands throughout the visible, near-IR, mid-IR, and thermal IR portions of the spectrum, which fuse the information of image and spectrum. Each pixel has an associated continuous spectrum that can be used to identify and inverse the surface materials. The spectrum data is decided by complicated aggregation which is composed of many materials, for example pure water, inorganic salt, soluble organic material, phytoplankton, chipping, mineral suspend material and so on. Various overlapped information interfere with each other, so that reflected model and spectrum curve of various surface feature is different. The interpretation of surface feature and energy is uncertain, random and changed. It is impossible to consider these factors quantificational and set a whole analysis model therefore it is important to confirm the offered portion of various material in seawater spectrum information. In marine hyperspectral research, material can show diagnostic absorption and reflectance characteristics to confirm parameter and qualification of remote sensing model. The paper reviews the characteristics to confirm parameter and qualification of remote sensing model. The paper reviews the characteristics of marine hyperspectrum technique presently, such as spectral absorb index, spectral derivative, spectral matching, spectral classification et al.
Nansihu lakes are important water conservancy hinge on the east line project of Translating South Water to North. In this paper, associating with the environment investigation and estimation on the south west of Shandong, we have a dynamic detection on their water quality and water areas with remote sensing covering more than 1300 kilometers. Using the data getting at low water time (Mar.28.2001 CBERS-CCD) as well as at abundant water time (Sep.6.1994 TM), combining with sampling test data on the spot and other remote sensing information, we have an iterative classification on images getting at different time. The result shows that the difference of regional water areas above the Second Level Dams of Nansihu lakes is about 169 square kilometers between low water time and abundant water time. From the images, three classes of water can be separated, including great area wet land. The area of the first class water is 13.3 square kilometers, the second class is 102.7 square kilometers, and the third class is 345.5 square kilometers. All these classes have an obvious relativity with the chemical indexes of water pollution, such as Biology Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Suspended Substance (SS), etc.
Hyperspectal remote sensing is one of the main trends in the domain of remote sensing technology. Hyperspectral data contain plenty of information about space, radiation and spectrum, which makes plant classification more precise. In the west of China, plant distribution is heavily dispersed because the loess terrain is liable to erosion by wind or rain. This makes it very difficult to survey plant distribution using normal multispectral remote sensing methods. The paper introduces the methods of plant classification using imaging spectral data obtained by OMIS I in detail, including traditional methods after the best features selecting from hyperspectral data, and ones based on spectrum matching technique uniquely applied in hyperspectral remote sensing, such as spectral angel mapping, derivate spectrum shape matching etc. The classification result verifies the effectiveness of hyperspectral remote sensing in plant classification.
It has not been satisfied with the need of visualization by 2D RS(remote sensing)image. The 3D simulation overlapped with RS image can reflect land forms more directly. This article is to simulate the Mount Taishan, which is world famous natural and cultural heritage, in 3D on the basis of RS and GIS for adapting to the developing of society. First generating DEM, then the TM image is overlaid DEM data and is shown in 3D with the 3D technique of ER mapper. This study takes guidance action on tour planning of Mount Taishan and tourists visiting the Mount Taishan.
Geothermal is the cheapest resources given to human being by the earth. The best way of its regional investigation is thermal inferred remote sensing. Thermal inferred image is a precise distributive mapping of the temperature of all earth's surface, which generally reflects clearly the geothermal body directly exposed to the earth's surface. By means of the image processing of Taian suburb TM image, especially band 6, the information of geothermal resource is taken up. Combining geophysical method and survey temperature onsite, the geothermal range is enclosed. On basic of these above, the author investigates the geology of the earth's surface and analyses the underground water, put forward the mechanism of the geothermal formation in the area, conduced a set of RS ways of geothermal resource investigation.
The destruction of the environment caused by the pollution of the environment certainly leads to the change of the radiant specific property of the electromagnetic wave of surface features. This alteration concretely expresses in the spectrum variation of water, soil and vegetation. This article, combining with the spectrum test of the mine, analyses and discusses the different categories of surface features, the spectrum variation caused by pollution and the optimum wave band applied to the environmental monitoring of the mine. And give proposals for the selection of the wave band of the sensor and designs.
The exploitation of the coal has brought about pollution on the surface water. That was seriously harmful to environment. Thinking of the Feicheng mining area as research area, authors tested the reflectance spectrum of waters and analyzed these curves. The paper made the computer image processing by TM computer compatible tape. Combining routine monitoring methods and TM images, the surface water of mining area was comprehensively analyzed furthermore. This paper provided a rapidly and economical method of monitoring mining area surface water.
Mining area is a large and complex system. Only do we adopt routine monitoring methods, the monitoring data that we got cold not reflect atmospheric condition perfectly. The technology of remote sensing can replenish the deficiency of routine environment monitoring methods. However, the quantity variation of vegetation index is correlative with the growing and covering degree of vegetation. With Feicheng's Baizhuang mine as researching area, the authors monitored the atmospheric environment by remote sensing technology adopting normalized vegetation index, analyzed the reflectance spectrum curve of poplar, and calculated the normalized vegetation index. On the basis of above research work, this paper put forward the mathematical relation of atmospheric environment synthesis index and normalization vegetation index, combining the routine analysis of atmospheric pollution. At last, the atmospheric environment of research area was analyzed by the spectrum data and remote sensing data.
Coal mining is attached great importance by society as a key profession of environmental pollution. The monitor and protection of coal-mine environment is a developing profession in China. The sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other waste gases, which are put out by the spontaneous combustion or weathering of gangue are an important pollution resource of atmosphere. The stack of gangue held down many farmlands. Smoke, coal dust and powder coal ash pollute the environment of mining area and surroundings though the affection of monsoon. The pH value of water which coal mine drained off is low, and the drinking, farming and animal husbandry water where it flowed are affected. The surface subsidence which mining caused is a typical destruction of ground environment. The people pay attention to remote sensing as a method of rapidly, cheaply regional environment investigation. The paper tires making an appraisement of mining area environment monitor by many kind methods of remote sensing from the characteristic of mining area environment.