The Italian Space Agency is funding 27 scientific projects in the framework of
Cosmo/Skymed program (hereafter CSK) . A subset of them are focusing on the improvements of the quality
and quantity of information which can be extracted from X-SAR data if integrated with other independent
techniques like GPS or SAR imagery in L and C bands. The GPS observations, namely zenith total delays
estimated by means of GPS ground stations, could be helpful to estimate the troposphere bias to remove
from IN-SAR imagery. Another contribution of GPS could be the improvements of the orbits of
Cosmo/SkyMed satellites. In particular the GPS navigation data of the CSK satellites could serve to improve
the atmospheric drag models acting on them. The integration of SAR data in L and C bands on the other
hand are helpful to investigate land hydrogeology parameters as well as to improve global precipitation
observations. The combined use of L, C and X SAR data with different penetration depth could give profiles
of land surface properties, especially in forest and snow/ice-packs. For what concern the use of X-SAR
imagery for rain precipitation monitoring, particular attention will be paid to its polarimetric properties that
we plan to determine aligning the CSK observations with those obtained with ground L and C radars.
Anyway the study goals, the approaches proposed, the test sites identified and the external data selected for
the development and validation will be described for each project. Particular attention will be paid to single
the advantages that the research activities can benefit from the added potentials of CSK system: the more
frequent revisiting time and the higher resolution capabilities.
ROSA (Radio Occultation Sounder of Atmosphere) is a space instrument which uses the Radio Occultation Technique
to provide highly accurate measurements of the atmospheric refractive indexes from which it is possible to derive,
atmospheric vertical profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity, as well as profiles of electron content in the
ionosphere. The measurements, generally, are made by using meteorological balloons, able to give a very detailed
atmospheric profiles but only on a local scale. From the space, ROSA, flying on a LEO orbit, is able to perform more
than 500 atmospheric profiles per day on a global scale,
The ROSA instrument is the core of a scientific program, of the same name, promoted by the Italian Space Agency
(ASI) to contribute to a better understanding of Climate Change. This program foresees the installation of the
ROSA instruments on several space missions and the developments of an ad hoc Ground Segment for the acquisition
and processing of the data.
The ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) mission OCEANSAT-2 will be the first mission that will embark
ROSA. OCEANSAT-2 is an operative mission for the study of the Ocean that will be launched next July 2007.