Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.
To completely characterize the color of effect coatings, the spectral BRDF should be measured for a large number of
illumination/detection geometries. This is possible with the GEFE, the gonio-spectrophotometer developed at Instituto de
Óptica in CSIC (IO-CSIC). Twenty-four effect coating samples were prepared by AkzoNobel, containing metallic and/or
interference flake pigments. The spectral BRDF of all samples was measured by GEFE using a normalized procedure
under 448 different geometries. The results are presented in two-dimensional a*-b* diagrams and in three-dimensional
CIELAB diagrams to show the color travel. Four different descriptors were used to quantify the color travel of these
samples. We show that for many samples and geometries, the resulting colors fall outside the color gamut of a typical
display. It was found that the reflection data do not vary considerably at reciprocal geometries, allowing a reduction of
geometries to be done. Finally, we show that for 3D rendering applications, the reflection data from BRDF can be
strongly reduced. For example, we show that using the concept of flake-based parameters it is possible to only use inplane
geometries. The resulting rendered images were shown to be accurate enough for rendering on displays.
The European Metrology Research Program (EMRP) is a metrology-focused program of coordinated Research and
Development (RD) funded by the European Commission and participating countries within the European Association
of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). It supports and ensures research collaboration between them by
launching and managing different types of project calls. Within the EMRP Call 2012 "Metrology for Industry", the joint
research project (JRP) entitled "Multidimensional Reflectometry for Industry" (xD-Reflect) was submitted by a
consortium of 8 National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and 2 universities and was subsequently funded. The general
objective of xD-Reflect is to meet the demands from industry to describe the overall macroscopic appearance of modern
surfaces by developing and improving methods for optical measurements which correlate with the visual sensation being
evoked. In particular, the project deals with the "Goniochromatism", "Gloss" and "Fluorescence" properties of dedicated
artifacts, which will be investigated in three main work packages (WP). Two additional transversal WP reinforce the
structure: "Modelling and Data Analysis" with the objective to give an irreducible set of calibration schemes and
handling methods and "Visual Perception", which will produce perception scales for the different visual attributes.
Multidimensional reflectometry involves the enhancement of spectral and spatial resolution of reference
gonioreflectometers for BRDF measurements using modern detectors, conoscopic optical designs, CCD cameras, line
scan cameras, and modern light sources in order to describe new effects like sparkle and graininess/coarseness. More
information and updated news concerning the project can be found on the xD-Reflect website http://www.xdreflect.eu/.
The Department of Optics of the University of Alicante is organizing a one-year (2005-6 period) postgraduate course in colour technology with the collaboration of members of the academic staff of several Spanish universities (University of Granada, Technical University of Catalonia, Technical University of Valencia, University of Valencia, etc) and other national institutions (CSIC's Department of Metrology and Technological Institute of Optics, Colour and Imaging-AIDO). Several multinational companies have also shown their interest in collaborating. We wish this course to mark the beginning of multi-disciplinary and inter-universities national postgraduate studies, with a high degree of professional specialisation, which fulfil the guidelines of the European Higher Education Area (Bologna Process) and other European technological platforms such as Manufuture or EuMaT.
An algorithm is proposed for the spectral and colorimetric characterization of digital still cameras (DSC) which allows to use them as tele-colorimeters with CIE-XYZ color output, in cd/m2. The spectral characterization consists of the calculation of the color-matching functions from the previously measured spectral sensitivities. The colorimetric characterization consists of transforming the RGB digital data into absolute tristimulus values CIE-XYZ (in cd/m2) under variable and unknown spectroradiometric conditions. Thus, at the first stage, a gray balance has been applied over the RGB digital data to convert them into RGB relative colorimetric values. At a second stage, an algorithm of luminance adaptation vs. lens aperture has been inserted in the basic colorimetric profile. Capturing the ColorChecker chart under different light sources, the DSC color analysis accuracy indexes, both in a raw state and with the corrections from a linear model of color correction, have been evaluated using the Pointer'86 color reproduction index with the unrelated Hunt'91 color appearance model. The results indicate that our digital image capture device, in raw performance, lightens and desaturates the colors.
We propose an experimental and theoretical-mathematical methodology to characterize by spectroradiometric methods the spectral linearity of a conventional digital still camera. As the first step to this characterization, we have performed a test to verify the reciprocity law starting from the experimental and theoretic-mathematical characterization of the total spectral dynamic range of the relation between exposure and RGB digital output data. The obtained results show that the reciprocity law in digital photography is not exactly verified.