We report on the experimental realization of optical frequency comb (OFC) generation in a doubly-resonant cavity second harmonic generation (SHG) system. OFCs continue to attract significant interest, offering a wealth of potential applications beyond frequency metrology. Continuously-driven Kerr microresonators, whose nonlinear response is dominated by the third-order nonlinearity, have proven to be viable alternatives to comb sources based on femtosecond mode-locked lasers. Recently, OFCs have also been directly generated through second-order nonlinear interactions in cw-pumped resonators namely, a singly-resonant cavity SHG system and a nearly-degenerate optical parametric oscillator. Theoretical studies have also predicted OFCs in doubly-resonant cavity SHG systems with a much lower threshold with respect to the singly-resonant configurations. Here we report on the first observations of OFCs in such a doubly-resonant system. The experiment is based on a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, placed in a traveling-wave optical cavity, pumped by a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting 0.5 W at 1064 nm. The cavity is resonant for frequencies around both the fundamental pump and its second harmonic at 532 nm, and an intracavity adjustable silica window is used to separately set the detunings of the pump and its second harmonic. Stable cavity locking to the pump laser is achieved via the Pound-Drever-Hall offset locking technique, thanks to a counterpropagating orthogonally polarized auxiliary beam. We measured a power threshold for comb formation as low as 5 mW, reduced by more than one order of magnitude with respect to singly-resonant configurations. The locking system permitted to explore frequency detunings up to several cavity linewidths, and to correspondingly observe a large variety of comb regimes, with different teeth spacing and spectral span, as well as the contribution of photothermal effect to the whole dynamics. In this regard, we developed an extended theoretical model that includes thermo-optical nonlinearities.
Thermal poling, a technique to create permanently effective second-order susceptibility in silica optical fibers, has recently been improved by the discovery of an “induction poling” technique1 and the adoption of liquid electrodes2, allowing for poling fibers of any length and geometry. Nevertheless, the nonlinearity created via thermal poling is always limited by the 𝜒(3)of the optical fiber material and by the maximum electric field that can be frozen inside the glass. For these reasons research is ongoing to determine routes for further improving the nonlinear effects due to the thermal poling process. In this work, we propose to enhance the effects of the thermal poling by exploiting the intrinsic nonlinear properties of some 2D materials3, which are deposited inside the cladding holes of a twin-hole silica fiber. The materials we focused on are 2D Transition Metal Chalcogenide (2D TMDC) MoS2 and WS2 and the technique adopted to realize the deposition inside the cladding channels of a twin-hole step index silica fiber consists of a thermal decomposition process4 of the precursor ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (NH4)2MoS4 in 6% H2/Ar flow. The technique has allowed us to uniformly coat the two cladding channels for a length of ≈25 cm with a film nominally consisting in a bi-layer of the 2D materials. A Raman based analysis has been used to test the morphology of the coating. The fiber deposited with 2D materials was later thermally poled and periodically erased via exposure to UV light to reach the QPM condition at a wavelength of ≈1550 nm. The effective 𝜒(2) of the fiber was measured via SHG for both the deposited and the pristine fiber, showing an enhancement of the nonlinearity in favor of the deposited one. The phenomenon can be explained by the exploitation of a higher 𝜒(3) seen by the pump wave due to the presence of the 2D layer deposited inside the cladding holes and opens the possibility of exploiting the higher intrinsic material 𝜒(2), in case of a periodic patterning/synthesis of the TMDC.
We demonstrate optical frequency comb generation in a continuously pumped optical parametric oscillator, in the parametric region around half of the pump frequency. We also model the dynamics of such quadratic combs using a single time-domain mean-field equation, and obtain simulation results that are in good agreement with experimentally observed spectra. Moreover, we numerically investigate the coherence properties of simulated combs, showing the existence of correlated and phase-locked combs. Our work could pave the way for a new class of frequency comb sources, which may enable straightforward access to new spectral regions and stimulate novel applications of frequency combs.
We discuss recent advances in the modelling of optical frequency comb generation in quadratic and cubic microresonators.
Different time domain models are presented and compared, and their solutions are analysed by