An Èchelle-grating specifically developed for the space borne measurement of earth’s atmospheric CO2-concentration is presented. It has a line density of ~170L/mm and is manufactured on a thick crystalline silicon substrate using electron beam lithography. The echelle profile is realized using a highly anisotropic chemical etching process, which stops on the <111> crystallographic planes of the crystal. The established manufacturing process allows perfect linear grating facets with negligible corner rounding of the profile. The important property of showing a low polarization sensitivity of the diffraction efficiency is achieved by a special design and technology for applying the gold coating of the grating which intentionally leaves one grating facet uncoated.
The highly aspheric secondary mirror M2 of ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) is the largest convex mirror ever polished. We report on manufacturing and error analysis of the high accuracy computer-generated hologram (CGH) used as part of the test concept for the M2 mirror. In order to comply with the required measurement accuracies in the single nanometer range (RMS), existing error sources along the entire process chain need to be considered. Available characterization methods for measurement of fabrication errors are described, as well as modelling of wavefront errors resulting from the CGH manufacturing process itself. Additionally, a general approach to improve the transmission of CGHs applying an effective multi-level patterning realized by binary sub-wavelength structures is introduced.
We report on the design and fabrication of a reflection grating for hyperspectral applications operating in the range from 340 nm to 1040 nm wavelength. The blazed grating is based on an effective medium approach, where the desired functionality is realized using a binary surface relief structure. For each period, a gradient in size of the local grating features mimics an interface which adds a linear phase profile to the illuminating beam – thus introducing diffraction. The surface relief structure is composed of 2D structures - pillars with diameters from 200 nm to 350 nm to voids with diameters from 300nm to 120 nm. Overall, an entire number of ~50 such features are arranged to establish an overall unit cell of the grating over a length of 30 μm. By purposeful design of size, shape and arrangement of the sub-wavelength features such gratings offer novel opportunities in tailoring the spectral response, i.e. particular broadband efficiency or the enhancement of the efficiency in specific sub-domains of the spectrum. We will present measured performance results of a grating covering a circular area of 80mm in diameter manufactured on a 4inch-wafer. Finally, we will give an outlook on how such structures can be applied to curved surfaces and even ultra-broadband operation.
The assembly effort of an optical system naturally relies on the degrees of freedom and the maximum allowable tolerances each optical surface introduces into the overall budget. Snap-together approaches traditionally can be regarded as attractive solutions for IR systems having moderate tolerances, where the required precision is achieved by simultaneously machining optical surfaces and mounting interfaces in a single machine setup. Recent improvements in manufacturing and metrology enable a transfer of the assembly approach to shorter wavelength applications, where sub-aperture figuring techniques are used in combination with suitable amorphous polishing layers to achieve the increased requirements on figure and finish. A further decrease of the assembly effort is gained by machining several optical surfaces on common mechanical substrates and fixing the relative position with uncertainties as low as the machine precision. The article presents the fabrication of large electroless nickel coated aluminum mirror modules having two functional freeform surfaces and references for metrology and system integration. The modules are part of an all metal anamorphic imaging telescope operating in the visual spectral range. Presented methods open up a rapid and reliable assembly of metal mirror based VIS telescopes to be used in ground and space based astronomy or remote sensing applications.
Miniaturization and higher integration of opto-electronic components require highly sophisticated optical designs. This creates the demand for freeform technologies like Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP) and new specially adapted materials like hybrid polymers (ORMOCERRs). Recent progress in the fabrication of microoptical structures using 2PP and specially designed hybrid polymers is presented. Among the structures are freeform and aberration-optimized microlenses and multilevel diffractive optical elements. These components are discussed with respect to fabrication process and their resulting optical performance. Furthermore, 2PP-initiated refractive index modification, offering high potential for energy-efficient fabrication of 3D optical interconnects, is discussed.
We present an immersion hybrid optics specially designed for focusing ultrashort laser pulses into a polymer
for direct laser writing via two-photon polymerization. The hybrid optics enables well corrected focusing over a
working distance range of 577 μm with a numerical aperture (NA) of 1.33 thereby causing low internal dispersion.
We combine the concepts of an aplanatic solid immersion lens (ASIL) for achieving a high NA with the correction
of aberrations with a diffractive optical element (DOE). To demonstrate the improvements for volume structuring
of the polymer, we compare achievable feature sizes of structures written with our optics and a commercial
available oil immersion objective (100x, NA=1.4).