The power of predictive modeling for radiotherapy outcomes has historically been limited by an inability to adequately capture patient-specific variabilities; however, next-generation platforms together with imaging technologies and powerful bioinformatic tools have facilitated strategies and provided optimism. Integrating clinical, biological, imaging, and treatment-specific data for more accurate prediction of tumor control probabilities or risk of radiation-induced side effects are high-dimensional problems whose solutions could have widespread benefits to a diverse patient population—we discuss technical approaches toward this objective. Increasing interest in the above is specifically reflected by the emergence of two nascent fields, which are distinct but complementary: radiogenomics, which broadly seeks to integrate biological risk factors together with treatment and diagnostic information to generate individualized patient risk profiles, and radiomics, which further leverages large-scale imaging correlates and extracted features for the same purpose. We review classical analytical and data-driven approaches for outcomes prediction that serve as antecedents to both radiomic and radiogenomic strategies. Discussion then focuses on uses of conventional and deep machine learning in radiomics. We further consider promising strategies for the harmonization of high-dimensional, heterogeneous multiomics datasets (panomics) and techniques for nonparametric validation of best-fit models. Strategies to overcome common pitfalls that are unique to data-intensive radiomics are also discussed.
We developed a smartphone-based epifluorescence microscope for fresh tissue imaging. The smartphone microscope optics was optimally designed to achieve similar resolution (0.56 μm) and FOV (520 μm) as the bench 40x microscope, commonly used during the histopathologic analysis. Preliminary images obtained from an excised human pancreatic tissue stained with a rapid staining fluorescence dye (PARPi-FL) clearly visualized individual tumor cells.