JWST optical component in-process optical testing and cryogenic requirement compliance certification, verification &
validation is probably the most difficult metrology job of our generation in astronomical optics. But, the challenge has
been met: by the hard work of dozens of optical metrologists; the development and qualification of multiple custom test
setups; and several new inventions, including 4D PhaseCam and Leica Absolute Distance Meter. This paper summarizes
the metrology tools, test setups and processes used to characterize the JWST optical components.
The context, preparation, and facilitization of Tinsley to produce the 18 JWST primary mirror segments are described,
and an overview of the Project at Tinsley is presented. The mirror segments are aggressively lightweighted,
approximately hexagonal, and approximately 1.32m flat-to-flat. While the optical finishing approach is strongly seated
in Tinsley's Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOSTM) technology, extensions have been implemented to
address safe and efficient nearly simultaneous flow of the high value mirror segments through numerous cycles of
optical finishing, processing and metrology steps. JWST will operate at cryogenic temperatures, and Tinsley will do
final figuring from a "hit map" made during cryogenic testing at the NASA MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF).
A formal beryllium safety protocol has been established throughout. Extensive handling fixtures assure that the mirrors
are moved from station to station experiencing low accelerations. A rigorous qualification process is applied to each
new fixture, machine and instrument. Special problems of cryo figuring, and co-finishing the segments to stringent
specifications are described.
Phase shifting interferometry requires an intentional shifting of the relative phase between the reference arm and the test arm of fan interferometry. Vibration can lead to uncertainty in the relative phase difference with respect to time and result in erroneous surface measurements. We have developed a method for actively compensating for vibration using a closed-loop phase servo system. An essential feature of this is a high frequency phase measurement. The phase is modulated and the intensity variations are measured with a high sped photodiode and digitized. This information is processed by a DSP and a five step algorithm is used to determine the instantaneous phase. These high speed phase measurements are used in a closed loop phase servo to compensate for vibration and also allow for phase shifting interferometry. Test results with and without the vibration compensation will be presented.
A method of interferometrically measuring large convex aspheres using test plates with computer generated holograms was developed at the University of Arizona. We present the results from a set of experiments that demonstrate the accuracy, flexibility, and the simplicity of performing the holographic test. A low-cost stand-alone setup as built for implementing this test on a 38-cm convex hyperboloid. A direct comparison of the CGH measurement with results from a classical Hindle test shows excellent agreement. We also demonstrate the unique attribute of this test to measure bare glass surfaces and highly reflective surfaces without making any modifications to the test equipment.
Conference Committee Involvement (4)
Optical Manufacturing and Testing X
26 August 2013 | San Diego, California, United States
Optical Manufacturing and Testing IX
22 August 2011 | San Diego, California, United States
Optical Manufacturing and Testing VIII
4 August 2009 | San Diego, California, United States
Optical Manufacturing and Testing VII
28 August 2007 | San Diego, California, United States