Photonic devices that exploit photonic crystal (PhC) principles in a planar environment continue to provide a fertile field of research. 2D PhC based channel waveguides can provide both strong confinement and controlled dispersion behaviour. In conjunction with, for instance, various electro-optic, thermo-optic and other effects, a range of device functionality is accessible in very compact PhC channel-guide devices that offer the potential for high-density integration. Low enough propagation losses are now being obtained with photonic crystal channel-guide structures that their use in real applications has become plausible. Photonic wires (PhWs) can also provide strong confinement and low propagation losses. Bragg-gratings imposed on photonic wires can provide dispersion and frequency selection in device structures that are intrinsically simpler than 2D PhC channel guides--and can compete with them under realistic conditions.
We present preliminary results on low-threshold compact edge-emitting laser structures incorporating high-reflectivity 1D photonic crystal mirrors. In addition we present 2-D FDTD simulation results of the mirror reflectivity and application of selective oxidation for the purpose of current confinement, hence reduction of threshold current. 84um cavity length 1D PC lasers are demonstrated to have a threshold current of approximately 5mA, reduced to 1.7mA upon application of oxide confined current aperture.