This paper investigates the relationship between the integral equation and Kirchhoff approximation in the diffraction theory of coherent radiance. The spectrum of the reflected wave is formed in the far field (Fraunhofer zone) and the solution is to Fourier transform of effective reflectance coefficient of a surface. In the paper, the analytical relationship between the method of solving an integral equation and the Kirchhoff approximation has been proven. It helps to define the structure of the field of diffracted waves in a Fraunhofer zone for coherent scattered light. The analytical equations for calculation of the average value of intensity scattering field and the mirror reflection coefficient of a rough surface have been obtained. Analysis of the components of the scattering coherent light coming from a metal surface has been improved. It helps to specify the data processing algorithms for evaluation of statistical characteristics of rough surfaces.
Among the various characteristics of infrared radiation, the degree of polarization is not often used in radiation analysis. The main reason is that polarization is less informative characteristic compared to others for most practical tasks. Also obtaining polarized radiation in infrared spectrum is relative complex and expensive act. In some cases, such as remote sensing, the improvement of spatial, radiometric and spectral resolution approaches it’s physical limit. It becomes relevant to obtain additional information of a different nature, such as polarization information. Modern infrared radiation polarizers based on diffraction gratings are quite expensive. The article explores the possibility of creating infrared polarizers based on a planeparallel plate, to which radiation falls at an Brewster angle. It is shown that the polarizer operating on transmittance will be more efficient than reflecting radiation polarizer, since it does not deviate the optical axis by a significant angle. Such a polarizer provides a polarization degree of 90% and a transmittance of about 50%.
The paper deals with a design method of multi-order diffractive intraocular lenses (IOL) that we have developed in order to correct chromatic aberration. It is shown that in order to prevent a color halo around the focused image the phasematching number is selected to attend at each point of the image three color components to get quality image. A computer simulation of multi-order diffractive lens (MODL) in a schematic model of the human eye was carried out. The calculated MODL focuses white light into a segment on an optical axis with high diffractive efficiency. More research needed to study an aberration analysis of lenses of this type.
In this article, the coherent optical spectrum analyzer (COSA), which consists of a spatial light modulator, a Fourier lens and a digital camera is explored. Spatial resolution (spatial spectral resolution), which is determined by the parameters of the components of the spectrum analyzer is one of the main characteristics of the COSA. The analysis of the COSA model allowed to develop a method for calculating the spatial spectral resolution taking into account the phase position of the diffraction maximums relative to the pixels of the matrix detector. When the modulator is illuminated with an inclined plane wave, the resolution of the spectrum analyzer can be doubled. The influence of modulator parameters and lens aberrations on the spectrum analyzer resolution is investigated.
Method of infrared lenses field of view step variation is discussed in this paper. Simple afocal lens caps based on the classic Kepler or Galilee telescopic schemes are considered. The afocal cap have to provide acceptable vignetting of the extreme rays and moderate transverse dimensions. Mersenne two-mirror system of Galilean-type was selected as the most suitable lens cap. Equations were obtained to calculate dimensional parameters of the cap in respect that vignetting coefficient should be minimal.
This article researches the proposed physical and mathematical model of a digital coherent optical spectrum analyzer, the spatial spectral bandwidth of which is limited by the diffraction of light on the matrix structure of the modulator. To expand the bandwidth of the spectrum analyzer, proposed to illuminate the modulator with a plane wave that incident on the modulator at a certain angle, similarly to the Leit-Upatnieks hologram. The research of the model has shown that when the modulator is illuminated with an inclined plane wave, the form of the diffraction pattern does not change, but the whole picture is shifted. To expand the operating spectral range (bandwidth), it is necessary that two diffraction maximum of the 0-th and + 1st orders incident into the entrance pupil of a Fourier lens, and when they are recorded, the entire sensitive surface of the matrix radiation detector is fully used. In this case, the operating range of the spectrum analyzer is equal to twice the Nyquist frequency of the modulator.
The known methods for defining the parameters of interaction between different abstract objects, as technological or biological origin, do not reflect the full influence of environmental factors. This leads to errors in the measurement of the mechanical and physical properties of the quality of the manufacture of precision parts, as well as to errors in the diagnostics of the fluid state of objects. This article discusses the method of determining the interaction of objects on the basis of determining the processes that affect the creation of a zone of the presence of objects, that is, the abstract object always has spatial-temporal properties, that is, it notifies about its presence, as well as features of the life of the mass of object within its Pandan zone. The assumption is made that the Pandan zone is a force factor in a limited space, to determine the influence of factors of the environment.
In this article, we research the physic and mathematical model of a digital coherent optical spectrum analyzer, which made it possible to obtain an analytical expression for calculating the spatial spectral resolution of the spectrum analyzer depending on the parameters of the spatial light modulator, the Fourier lens, and the matrix detector. To determine the spatial resolution of the aberrational Fourier lens, it is proposed to use a criterion similar to the Rayleigh criterion. Obtained the formula for determining the dependence of the spectral resolution of the processor on the aberration parameter of the Fourier lens, the research of which showed that for small pixel sizes of the detectors the resolution is determined by the size of the modulator matrix, and for large pixels by the pixel size.
The paper contains the results of the research carried out to create new approaches to ensure the high accuracy of the precision detail’s manufacture, which will accurately determine the distance of the tool to the workpieces, which greatly affects the accuracy of the detail’s manufacture by the automated production. Purpose of the work was to create the principles of the operation of a two-parameter measuring probe for the control system of the workpiece’s setting relatively to the instrument. On based of the processing system of the informative parameters of complex electromagnetic fields (in particular, the optical range), which prevents the destruction of process equipment in the detail’s manufacture for precision devices. Consequently, the principles of construction of two-parameter electromagnetic systems of control and measurement of space-time coordinates of technological objects location in the workspace of the machine are proposed. The proposed action of the probe for the information-measuring system of contact provides an increase in the accuracy of the metalworking process during the manufacture of precision details of devices, which is especially important in the processing of metals on CNC machines.
The concept of active background plane touching of two abstract objects is considered in the paper. The model of active plane touches on the principles of real and imaginary surfaces is offered. Geometry of active plane sensors at the touches of the technological objects, and theoretical density of elementary detector elements at the location on a common plane of technological object are shown. Using the model of the active zone, the concept of zone accuracy is offered. In the followed scientific of research direction, you should consider of the overall situation, which a sensor is create at the time by touch of the two surfaces of technological objects
There are a number of problems in the manufacture of precision instruments related to the accuracy of the size of details, which affects the quality of the product. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account those distortions of the geometry of the element of details, which are machining, for example, on CNC machines. At work the main possible variants of deviation from geometric sizes, which lead to loss of accuracy of the detail are considered
In this article, we investigate the mathematical model of a digital optoelectronic processor for the purpose of determining the signal at the processor’s output. The study of the model allows us to determine the distortions of the input signal of the processor, which are caused by the matrix spatio-temporal modulator. The developed physical and mathematical model of the processor made it possible to obtain an analytical expression for the signal at the processor’s output. Its analysis shows that the formula for determining the spatial frequency differs significantly from the traditional formula. The spatial frequency depends on positions of the central and side maxima in the first-order diffraction maximum. In this case, the signal spectrum can be determined by measuring the lateral maximum, which is located closer to the optical axis of the processor. This allows to use of smaller matrix detectors, as well as to investigate the signal spectrum beyond the Nyquist frequency of the modulator.
The structure of the control system of quality of a well-bonded coupling fitting onto high-pressure gas-main pipelines is introduced in the article. The control system consists of information parameters measuring instrument, a calculating instrument for optimal preset parameters values and an analyzer which evaluates discrepancy between measured values and optimal ones and making a decision about the system actions relevant to the given discrepancy elimination. The effect of geometrical pipe parameters, a coupling construction, an under-coupling layer material strength parameters, technological parameters of an under-coupling layer forming on a pipeline strengthening has been analyzed. Furthermore, it has been described the requirements to getting control of a pipeline strengthening efficiency and given the system of interrelated equations for calculating optimal controlled parameters values. The proposed control method allows gaining a maximum pipeline strengthening efficiency using a molten metal for an under-coupling space filling. The represented experiment data have confirmed the increasing a pipeline strength by means of installing couplings proposed construction. A good agreement between experimentally derived data and results of theoretical measurements is shown. Also, the optimal technological parameters of an under-coupling layer forming have been defined and proposed.
The paper deals with the specific nature of assembly processes in instrument-making and considers the current state of development of computer-aided design technology assembly and their suitability for conditions of instrument making production. In addition, we develop the mathematical model of the assembly product in instrument-making taking into account complexity and specificity of the assembly, adjustment and test work. We propose the method of forming the model describing the structure of the assembly product which represents it as a hierarchical system of interconnected structural elements. The proposed model is integrated in the CAD system. It is informative and suitable for the process of automated assembly design. Relying on the proposed method describing the product structure we develop the software AsCAM containing the procedures and database design and technology information. This software can effectively solve the problem of technology preparation of small-scale assembly plant in construction of the circuit assembly of the product and flow diagram of assembly.
In this article, the limiting characteristics of a digital optoelectronic processor are explored. The limits are defined by diffraction effects and a matrix structure of the devices for input and output of optical signals. The purpose of a present research is to optimize the parameters of the processor’s components. The developed physical and mathematical model of DOEP allowed to establish the limit characteristics of the processor, restricted by diffraction effects and an array structure of the equipment for input and output of optical signals, as well as to optimize the parameters of the processor’s components. The diameter of the entrance pupil of the Fourier lens is determined by the size of SLM and the pixel size of the modulator. To determine the spectral resolution, it is offered to use a concept of an optimum phase when the resolved diffraction maxima coincide with the pixel centers of the radiation detector.
The paper deals with important issues of diagnosis early signs of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease and other specific diseases. Small quantities of violation trajectory of spatial movement of the extremities of human disease at the primary level as the most appropriate features are studied. In modern medical practice is very actual the control the emergence of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease. In work a model limbs with six rotational kinematic pairs for diagnosis of early signs of diseases of the nervous system is considered. subject.
Simplified model of image forming in spaceborne linear array sensors at arbitrary sight angles is proposed in this paper. On basis of evaluation of system "lens - linear array detector" modulation transfer function (MTF), the equations were obtained that allow you to determine spatial resolution on Earth’s surface. An example of pushbroom imager’s MTF determination at sight of Nadir and with different slopes of lens optical axis is given. Image quality changes, which accompany lens optical axis angular inclination were studied. More research needed to determine the impact of lens aberrations on imager’s MTF with arbitrary viewing angles.
This article examines a systematic error that occurs in optical spectrum analyzers and is caused by Fresnel approximation. The aim of the article is to determine acceptable errors of spatial frequency measurement in signal spectrum. The systematic error of spatial frequency measurement has been investigated on the basis of a physical and mathematical model of a coherent spectrum analyzer. It occurs as a result of the transition from light propagation in free space to Fresnel diffraction. Equations used to calculate absolute and relative measurement errors depending on a diffraction angle have been obtained. It allows us to determine the limits of the spectral range according to the given relative error of the spatial frequency measurement.
The purpose of this article is to improve methods of calculating generalized characteristics of the coherent spectrum analyzers, which define the device’s properties and operation. These are the working range of spatial frequencies, the spatial spectral resolution and the energy resolution. Due to these methods, it is possible to choose optimal dimensions and parameters of components of the device to improve the properties of the last.