Over the past years, ASML has taken the NXE pellicle concept (2015) from the concept level to pilot production (2016) and subsequently to a final product (2017 and onwards). In this paper we will show the progress in pellicle development that was made over the past year. After ASML started volume production of pellicles with the previous film generation, a new film generation was introduced end 2018. This new generation of pellicles shows considerable improvements in imaging performance, stability, EUV power capability and EUV reflectivity. The current generation of pellicle films show an EUV power capability of 250 Watts; improvements were also made in the imaging performance, where the EUV reflectivity of the pellicle reduced to below 0.04%. The EUV transmission of the latest pellicles increased to 83%.
High throughput lightweight Hard X-ray Optics manufactured via electroforming replication process from supersmooth
mandrels are the primary candidate for some of future New Hard X-ray missions. Media Lario Technologies (MLT) is
the industrial enabler exploiting the electroforming technology initially applied for the ESA XMM-Newton mission and
further developed in cooperation with Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF/OAB). The current and ongoing
development activities in Media Lario Technologies complement the electroforming technology with a suite of critical
manufacturing and assembly of the Mirror Module Unit. In this paper, the progress on mandrels manufacturing, mirror
shell replication, multilayer coating deposition, mirror module integration, and relevant metrology is reported in view of
the upcoming production phase. Mandrel production is a key point in terms of performances and schedule; the results
from of NiP prototype mandrels fabricated using a proprietary multistep surface finishing process are reported. The
progress in the replication of ultrathin Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt substrates gold coated mirror shells is reported together
with the results of MLT Magnetron Sputtering multilayer coating technology for the hard x-ray waveband and its
application to W/Si. Due to the criticality of low thickness mirror handling, the integration concept has been refined and
tested on prototype mechanical structures under full illumination UV vertical optical bench.
Depth-graded multilayer structures are widely considered as the preferred technology for the next generation of hard Xray
telescopes operating in the spectral range up to several tens of keV. This contrasts to earlier generation telescopes
which operated in the 1-10 keV range, and utilized single material reflection layers (e.g. Au). Several future space
missions are scheduled to include optics comprising up to hundreds of nested shells with Wolter-I profile. Therefore, the
need for an industrial strength (in terms of robustness, reliability and precision) manufacturing process for such
multilayers has emerged. In this paper, we will discuss the enabling technologies towards "industrial" Physical Vapor
Deposition (PVD) technology we have developed for this precision coating process. More specifically, we will review
the results obtained on periodic and a-periodic W/Si multilayers, which have been produced on shells of 600 mm height
and 300 mm diameter. Points that will be discussed include:
· Advanced process control based on in-situ sensors and its effect on repeatability and stability of the process.
· Ex-situ metrology methods
· Thickness homogeneity over large areas
The power roadmap for EUVL high volume manufacturing (HVM) exceeds the 200W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus, thus posing more demanding requirements on HVM sources, debris suppression systems and collectors. Starting from the lessons learned in the design and fabrication of the grazing incidence collectors for the Alpha EUVL scanners, Media Lario Technologies is developing HVM optical solutions that enable designed-in lifetime improvements, such as larger source-collector distances, optimized collection efficiency through larger collected solid angles, and customized EUV reflective layers.
The optical design of an HVM collector is described together with the selection of the sacrificial ruthenium reflective layer. The water cooling layout of the collector is evolved from the integrated cooling technology developed at Alpha level into an innovative cooling layout that minimizes the thermal gradients across the mirrors and allows controlling the optical performance at the far-field plane. Finally, the evolution of the collector's manufacturing technologies for HVM is discussed.
XTREME technologies and Philips Extreme UV support this work by integrating the collector in the complete source collector module (SoCoMo). At system level, each component of the SoCoMo is part of a development and improvement plan leading to a comprehensive system that will fulfill the 200+ W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus.
Measurements of the EUV, visible and near-infrared grazing-incidence reflectivity of Si-Au coatings are presented. Such coatings could be used for EUV optical components subjected to very high thermal load, as the optics for the EUV spectrometer of the Solar Orbiter mission. The mission consists in putting an orbiting spacecraft in close proximity (45 solar radii) to the Sun, then in a severe thermal environment (34 kW/m2). The thermal stresses are reduced if the optics looking at the disk are operated in grazing incidence. The common materials used as a grazing-incidence coatings with high EUV reflectivity have low reflectivity in the visible and near-infrared, on the contrary materials with high visible grazing-incidence reflectivity have poor EUV reflectivity. A suitable coating with high reflectivity both in the EUV and visible is a silicon layer (100-400 Å) deposited on gold. The silicon has high EUV grazing-incidence reflectivity and is partially transparent in the visible and near-infrared, where the gold coating has high reflectivity. Measurements on Si-Au samples show both higher EUV reflectivity than gold samples and higher visible reflectivity than silicon samples.
Deposition and characterization results of multilayer coatings optimized for HeII 30.4 nm high reflectivity will be presented. Additional characterization of reflectivity at HI Ly-α and in the visible spectral range has been also accomplished in order to investigate the performances of such coatings in view of their application to the UVCI instrument on board of ESA payload SOLO and to HERSCHEL, a sounding rocket experiment.