An innovative wireless passive system for impact detection on large-scale composite airframe structures is presented. The wireless system is designed to operate with a sensor network for onboard of aircraft for structural health monitoring, of composite airframe. The wireless systems efficient design allows for low power consumption, wireless communication capability, system robustness and large sensing area. The system is evaluated on a large-scale stiffened composite fuselage under different operational conditions. It is demonstrated that it is possible to detect impact events with different impact energy levels and impact locations over a large monitoring area. This work provides a potential solution for aircraft on-board structural health monitoring with no human intervention. This sensing system can be also adapted to other Internet of Things and structural health monitoring applications.