Photoelastic-modulator(PEM) generating a beat signal that modulates the polarized component of the incident light is employed in spectropolarimetric imager. Multispectral and polarized information can be achieved in target detection. The measurement accuracy is a critical technical index. In order to research the elements affecting the measurement accuracy of the instrument, the theoretical measurement principle and the optical structure characteristics are introduced. The polarization radiation measurement model is established by using mathematical description called Stokes-Muller and pseudo-inverse matrix is used to realize demodulation of incident light. Sensitivity of Degree of Linear Polarization (DOLP) retrieval to errors in retardance amplitude, retardance amplitude mismatch resulted from incident angle, scene gradient and phase error and detector noise is analyzed when different polarized incident light is considered. The result shows that relative error of DOLP is less than 0.5% and retardance amplitude error affects DOLP most. The study provides a theoretical basis for development, calibration and data processing of the instrument.
In order to improve the detection accuracy and range of new generation of Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) system for distant targets, its optical system, which usually consists of a fore afocal telescope and rear imaging lenses, is required to has wide spectral range, large entrance pupil aperture, and wide field of view (FOV). In this paper, a new afocal Three-Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) with widened field of view and high demagnification is suggested. Its mechanical structure remains coaxial, but it has zigzag optical axis through properly and slightly decentering and tilting of the three mirrors to avoid its secondary obscuration due to the third mirror as FOV increase. Compared with conventional off-axis TMA, the suggested zigzag-axis TMA is compact, easy-alignment and low-cost.
The design method and optimum result of the suggested afocal TMA is presented. Its initial structural parameters are determined with its first-order relationship and primary aberration theory. Slight and proper decentration and tilt of each mirror is leaded in optimization so that its coaxial mechanical structure is held but attainable FOV and demagnification are respectively as wide and as high as possible. As an example, a 5.5-demagnification zigzag-axis afocal TMA with a wavelength range, an entrance pupil diameter, and FOV respectively from 3μm to 12μm, of 320mm, and 2×3.2 degrees and with a real exit pupil, is designed. Its imaging quality is diffraction limited. It is suitable for fore afocal telescope of the so-called third generation FLIR.
There is a race to develop spaceborne high-resolution video cameras since Skybox’s success. For low manufacture cost and adaption to micro and small satellites, it is urgent to design and develop compact long focal length optical system with not only small volume, light weight and easy implementation, and also two dimensional field. Our focus is on the Coaxial Three-Mirror Anastigmat (CTMA) with intermediate real image for its no need outer hood and compactness and for its easy alignment, low-order aspheric surface and low cost. The means to deflect its image space beam for accessibility of focal plane array detector and to eliminate its inherent secondary obscuration from its primary mirror central hole and deflection flat mirror is discussed. The conditions to satisfy the above-mentioned requirements are presented with our derived relationship among its optical and structural parameters based on Gaussian optics and geometry. One flat mirror near its exit pupil can be used to deflect its image plane from its axis. And its total length can be decreased with other some flat mirrors. Method for determination of its initial structure with the derived formulae is described through one design example. Furthermore, optimized CTMA without secondary obscuration and with effective focal length (EFFL) of 10m is reported. Its full field, F-number and total length are respectively 1.1°×1°, F/14.3, and one eighth of its EFFL. And its imaging quality is near diffraction limit.