Optical metrology is a critical and complex technique for the fabrication of precision optics in which the surface figure is better than peak-to-valley 1 / 10λ or RMS 1 / 30λ. Careful calibration of the intrinsic system errors of the experimental setup, including the alignment error of the metrology tool and the manufacturing error of the reference optics, should be performed. However, any surface deformation caused by the mounting supporter or a gravity effect can result in an incorrect surface figure correction, especially in mid-to-large optics. The system error of the experimental setup and deformation by external conditions of the optics, such as temperature drift, air turbulence, and vibration, affect the measured result. In the proposed method, the magnitude and phase of all nonrotationally symmetrical Zernike coefficients were obtained through multiple measurements by rotating the optics. These coefficients were used to analyze absolute low-spatial frequency figures. To verify the reproducibility of the proposed method, three metrology tools with distinct measurement methods were used to obtain surface figures and the results were then compared.
The degree of passivation of the grinding wheel is gradually increased during the machining process, the friction between the grinding wheel and the workpiece is increased which causing the vibration and noise of the machine are changed. Therefore, the vibration and noise values could be obtained by using the vibration sensor and microphone. We use the spectrum analyzer to analyze the trend of the variation of vibration and noise signals. As the wear of the grinding wheel increases, the sound acoustic pressure in the range of 4.3 kHz to 5.3 kHz decreases. As the friction between the grinding wheel and the workpiece increases, high-frequency noise greater than 6 kHz are excited and the acoustic pressure increases. According to the experimental results, it is known that the wear state of the grinding wheel and the noise spectrum in generating process has a significant correlation. The cutting force of the grinding wheel can be observed by the noise spectrum of the spectrum analyzer to identify whether there is an abnormality in the processing process to optimize the grinding parameter immediately for avoiding the damage of the lens.
Optical metrology is a critical and complicated technique for the fabrication of precision optics which surface figure is better than RMS 1/30λ. The intrinsic systematic error of the experimental setup including the alignment error of the metrology tool and manufacturing error of the reference optics shall be calibrated carefully. Nevertheless, the measured consequence also includes the surface deformation caused by mounting supporter and gravity effect, which may result in a misleading judgment for surface figure correction, especially for mid- to-large optics. Besides the systematic error of experimental setup and deformation by an external condition of the optics, the environmental condition such as temperature drift, air turbulence, and vibration also affect the measured result. This paper proposes a method which adopts the magnitude and phase of each non-rotationally symmetrical Zernike coefficients grabbed from the multiple measurements from rotating the optics to analyze the absolute low-spatial frequency figures.
We present a portable non-contact displacement sensor (NCDS) based on astigmatic method for micron displacement measurement. The NCDS are composed of a collimated laser, a polarized beam splitter, a 1/4 wave plate, an aspheric objective lens, an astigmatic lens and a four-quadrant photodiode. A visible laser source is adopted for easier alignment and usage. The dimension of the sensor is limited to 115 mm x 36 mm x 56 mm, and a control box is used for dealing with signal and power control between the sensor and computer. The NCDS performs micron-accuracy with ±30 μm working range and the working distance is constrained in few millimeters. We also demonstrate the application of the NCDS for lens centration error measurement, which is similar to the total indicator runout (TIR) or edge thickness difference (ETD) of a lens measurement using contact dial indicator. This application has advantage for measuring lens made in soft materials that would be starched by using contact dial indicator.