The Starbug technology1 developed by AAO-MQ allows fibre positioners to be built with large multiplexing capabilities. The Starbug robots are positionable individually and in parallel, which results in significant configuration time improvements over what can be achieved by single-arm pick and place robots. Their design allows the Starbugs to carry a complex payload, and their movement mechanism and vacuum adhesion to the instrument's glass field plate at the telescope's focal plane means that they can be used to position fibres on a non-planar surface.
MANIFEST is a multi-object fibre facility for the Giant Magellan Telescope that uses ‘Starbug’ robots to accurately position fibre units across the telescope’s focal plane. MANIFEST, when coupled to the telescope’s planned seeinglimited instruments, offers access to larger fields of view; higher multiplex gains; versatile focal plane reformatting of the focal plane via integral-field-units; image-slicers; and in some cases higher spatial and spectral resolution. The TAIPAN instrument on the UK Schmidt Telescope is now close to science verification which will demonstrate the feasibility of the Starbug concept. We are now moving into the conceptual development phase for MANIFEST, with a focus on developing interfaces for the telescope and for the instruments.
The AAO’s TAIPAN instrument is a multi-object fibre positioner and spectrograph installed on the 1.2m UK-Schmidt telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. The positioner, a prototype for the MANIFEST positioner on the Giant Magellan Telescope, uses independently controlled Starbug robots to position a maximum of 300 optical fibres on a 32cm glass field plate (for a 6 degree field of view), to an accuracy of 5 microns (0.3 arcsec). The Starbug technology allows multi-object spectroscopy to be carried out with a minimum of overhead between observations, significantly decreasing field configuration time. Over the next 5 years the TAIPAN instrument will be used for two southern-hemisphere surveys: Taipan, a spectroscopic survey of 1x10^6 galaxies at z<0.3, and FunnelWeb, a stellar survey complete to Gaia G=12.5. In this paper we present an overview of the operational TAIPAN instrument: its design, construction and integration, and discuss the 2017 commissioning campaign and science verification results obtained in early 2018.
The Greenland Telescope (GLT) project and the East Asian Observatory (EAO) successfully commissioned the first light GLT instrument at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii, prior to transferring the instrument to Greenland. The GLT instrument which comprises of a cryostat with three cartridge-type receivers (at 86GHz, 230GHz and 345GHz) was installed into the receiver cabin of JCMT and operated in three modes: - (a) Regular JCMT observing with the GLT instrument, using ACSIS, (JCMT’s autocorrelation spectrometer) as the backend and JCMT software for telescope control, data reduction, pointing and antenna focus adjustment. (b) Single dish observations of astronomical spectral line sources, recording data onto mark 6 recorders for offline data reduction. (c) eSMA interferometer array observations at 230GHz in conjunction with the SMA. In this paper, we report on the installation and integration of the GLT instrument at JCMT, present results from commissioning and show how the success of the GLT instrument commissioning fits with our plans for future instrumentation at JCMT.
Based on the success of the SAMI integral field spectrograph (IFS) instrument on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) the capacity for large IFS nearby galaxy surveys on the AAT is being substantially expanded with a new instrument called Hector. The high filling-fraction imaging fibre bundles ‘hexabundles’ of the type used on SAMI, are being enlarged to cover up to 30-arcsec diameter. The aim is to reach two effective radii on most galaxies, where the galaxy rotation curve flattens and >75% of the specific angular momentum of disk galaxies is accounted for. Driven by the key science case, Hector will have a 1.3A spectral resolution, enabling high-order stellar kinematics to be measured on a larger fraction of galaxies than with any other IFS instrument. Hector will be on sky in 2019.
The first module of Hector, Hector-I, will have 21 hexabundles and >42 sky fibres to observe 20 galaxies and a calibration star simultaneously. It consists of new blue and red-arm spectrographs that have been designed at the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO; now called AAO-Macquarie), coupled to the new hexabundles and robotic positioner from AAO-USydney (formerly the Sydney Astrophotonics Instrumentation Laboratory, SAIL) at Sydney University. A novel robotic positioning concept will compensate for varying telecentricity over the 2-degree-field of the AAT to recoup the 20% loss in light at the edge of the field. Hector-I will survey 15,000 galaxies. Additional modules in the future would result in 30,000 galaxies.
Hector will take integral field spectroscopy on galaxies with z<0.15 in the 4MOST WAVES-North and WAVES-South∗ regions. The WAVES data, which will come later, will give the environment metrics neces- sary to relate how local and global environments influence galaxy growth through gas accretion, star formation and spins measured with Hector. The WALLABY ASKAP† survey will trace HI gas across the Hector fields, which in combination with Hector will give a complete view of gas accretion and star formation.
The most challenging of the metrology needs of multi-objects instruments is the registration of the pupil on the
deformable mirror which corrects the wavefront errors. Pick-off mirrors in multi-objects instruments and specially
spectrographs (MOS) require accurate positioning and simultaneous viewing of the pupil on the deformable mirror
(DM) and the focal plane image on the image slicer at the sub-micron level. A laboratory test prototype simulating the
telescope (E-ELT), the beam steering mirror (BSM) and the pupil imaging mirror (PIM), is presented to confirm the
correct positioning of the pupil on the DM and to provide the movements of the moveable optical elements to achieve it.
The opto-mechanical design and testing of this prototype is shown. The BSM stages (Goniometric cradle, Rotation, &
Linear) provide the key mechanical system elements, with precision alignment, resolution, and repeatability .
The design and behaviour of the control system is discussed; the ultimate aim of which is to adjust the BSM and PIM to
correct for any slight mis-positioning of the pick-off mirror and any temporal drift of all the components to achieve the
required alignment. The control system can also cope with flexure effects when required.
Over preceding conferences, the design and implementation of the SCUBA-2 (Sub-millimeter Common-User
Bolometric Array 2) instrument hardware has been described in detail. SCUBA-2 has been installed on the James Clerk
Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) for over two years and its hardware has been successfully commissioned. This paper
describes the culmination of this process and compares the optical/mechanical design and test expectations of the
instrument hardware against the performance achieved in the field.
EAGLE is an instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). EAGLE will be installed at the Gravity
Invariant Focal Station of the E-ELT, covering a field of view of 50 square arcminutes. Its main scientific drivers are the
physics and evolution of high-redshift galaxies, the detection and characterization of first-light objects and the physics of
galaxy evolution from stellar archaeology. These key science programs, generic to all ELT projects and highly
complementary to JWST, require 3D spectroscopy on a limited (~20) number of targets, full near IR coverage up to 2.4
micron and an image quality significantly sharper than the atmospheric seeing. The EAGLE design achieves these
requirements with innovative, yet simple, solutions and technologies already available or under the final stages of
development. EAGLE relies on Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) which is being demonstrated in the laboratory
and on sky. This paper provides a summary of the phase A study instrument design.
SCUBA-2 is a new wide-field submillimeter continuum instrument being commissioned on the James Clerk
Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. SCUBA-2 uses large-scale arrays of superconducting bolometers
with SQUID- (superconducting quantum interference device) based multiplexing and amplification. The sensitivity
of the devices that compose the detector arrays to magnetic fields is such that magnetic shielding, consisting
of superconducting and high-permeability materials, was fitted to the detector enclosure at 1 K to reduce the
magnetic field strength at the focal plane. This paper describes the design and construction of the cryogenic
shielding, and presents verification measurements. The shielding performance was found to meet the instrument
requirements, and compared well to the modelled results.
This paper describes the opto-mechanical design of a large instrument for sub-mm, SCUBA-2, to be commissioned at JCMT. The scientific requirements, specially the large fov and the constraints of the telescope mechanical structure, lead to a complex optical design using freeform aluminium mirrors . The mechanical design is also challenging with large modules to be mounted and aligned in the telescope as well as the cryogenic instrument containing the mirrors, the filters, the dichroics and the detector modules. The cryogenic isostatic mounting, the structural and thermal designs are presented. This includes details of the fabrication of the structure and design of a shutter mechanism for operation at 4K. The results of the first AIV cool-down are also presented.
The SCUBA-2 instrument is a new wide-field imager under development for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii and due to be operational in 2006. The instrument has two separate focal planes and is designed to observe simultaneously at wavelengths of 450 and 850μm. The instrument cryostat will weigh around 2500kg and has a volume of approximately 2.4x1.8x2.0m. The two detector arrays are operated at ~100mK and are surrounded by a cold enclosure at ~1K. Both the arrays and cold enclosure are cooled by a novel, liquid cryogen-free dilution refrigerator. To reduce the thermal background on the arrays to a minimum the main optics structure, weighing in excess of 450kg, must be cooled to less than 15K. A pair of low vibration pulse tube coolers are used to cool this structure and a radiation shield at ~60K. This paper describes the cryo-mechanical design of SCUBA-2 and discusses some of the issues and techniques needed to both cool the instrument within a reasonable timescale, and operate it in the required temperature regime
SCUBA-2 is a second generation, wide-field submillimeter camera under development for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. With over 12,000 pixels, in two arrays, SCUBA-2 will map the submillimeter sky ~1000 times faster than the current SCUBA instrument to the same signal-to-noise. Many areas of astronomy will benefit from such a highly sensitive survey instrument: from studies of galaxy formation and evolution in the early Universe to understanding star and planet formation in our own Galaxy. Due to be operational in 2006, SCUBA-2 will also act as a "pathfinder" for the new generation of submillimeter interferometers (such as ALMA) by performing large-area surveys to an unprecedented depth. The challenge of developing the detectors and multiplexer is discussed in this paper.