LiteBIRD is a candidate for JAXA’s strategic large mission to observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization over the full sky at large angular scales. It is planned to be launched in the 2020s with an H3 launch vehicle for three years of observations at a Sun-Earth Lagrangian point (L2). The concept design has been studied by researchers from Japan, U.S., Canada and Europe during the ISAS Phase-A1. Large scale measurements of the CMB B-mode polarization are known as the best probe to detect primordial gravitational waves. The goal of LiteBIRD is to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) with precision of r < 0:001. A 3-year full sky survey will be carried out with a low frequency (34 - 161 GHz) telescope (LFT) and a high frequency (89 - 448 GHz) telescope (HFT), which achieve a sensitivity of 2.5 μK-arcmin with an angular resolution 30 arcminutes around 100 GHz. The concept design of LiteBIRD system, payload module (PLM), cryo-structure, LFT and verification plan is described in this paper.
We present an overview of the thermal and mechanical design of the Payload Module (PLM) of the next- generation infrared astronomy mission Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA). The primary design goal of PLM is to cool the whole science assembly including a 2.5 m telescope and focal-plane instruments below 8 K. SPICA is thereby expected to have very low background conditions so that it can achieve unprecedented sensitivity in the mid- and far-infrared. PLM also provides the instruments with the 4.8 K and 1.8 K stages to cool their detectors. The SPICA cryogenic system combines passive, effective radiative cooling by multiple thermal shields and active cooling by a series of mechanical cryocoolers. The mechanical cryocoolers are required to provide 40 mW cooling power at 4.8 K and 10 mW at 1.8 K at End-of-Life (EoL). End-to-end performance of the SPICA cryocooler-chain from 300 K to 50 mK was demonstrated under the framework of the ESA CryoChain Core Technology Program (CC-CTP). In this paper, we focus on the recent progress of the thermal and mechanical design of SPICA PLM which is based on the SPICA mission proposal to ESA.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow us to assess directly the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, thus enabling the detailed study of the various processes that govern the formation and early evolution of stars and planetary systems in the Milky Way and of galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions, from IRAS to Herschel, have revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but sensitivity has been limited because up to now it has not been possible to fly a telescope that is both large and cold. Such a facility is essential to address key astrophysical questions, especially concerning galaxy evolution and the development of planetary systems.
SPICA is a mission concept aimed at taking the next step in mid- and far-infrared observational capability by combining a large and cold telescope with instruments employing state-of-the-art ultra-sensitive detectors. The mission concept foresees a 2.5-meter diameter telescope cooled to below 8 K. Rather than using liquid cryogen, a combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With cooling not dependent on a limited cryogen supply, the mission lifetime can extend significantly beyond the required three years. The combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors means that SPICA can provide a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
The SPICA instrument complement offers spectral resolving power ranging from ~50 through 11000 in the 17-230 µm domain as well as ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 µm. Additionally, SPICA will be capable of efficient 30-37 µm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging in the 100-350 µm range. SPICA will enable far infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5x10-20 W/m2 (5σ/1hr) - at least two orders of magnitude improvement over what has been attained to date. With this exceptional leap in performance, new domains in infrared astronomy will become accessible, allowing us, for example, to unravel definitively galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, to study dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, and to trace the formation history of planetary systems.
The Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission is the sixth Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite developed by a large international collaboration, including Japan, USA, Canada, and Europe. The mission aimed to provide the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E > 2 keV, using a microcalorimeter instrument, and to cover a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft x-rays to gamma rays. After a successful launch on February 17, 2016, the spacecraft lost its function on March 26, 2016, but the commissioning phase for about a month provided valuable information on the onboard instruments and the spacecraft system, including astrophysical results obtained from first light observations. The paper describes the Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission, its capabilities, the initial operation, and the instruments/spacecraft performances confirmed during the commissioning operations for about a month.
We present the new design of the cryogenic system of the next-generation infrared astronomy mission SPICA under the
new framework. The new design employs the V-groove design for radiators, making the best use of the Planck heritage.
The new design is based on the ESA-JAXA CDF study (NG-CryoIRTel, CDF-152(A)) with a 2 m telescope, and we
modified the CDF design to accommodate the 2.5 m telescope to meet the science requirements of SPICA. The basic
design concept of the SPICA cryogenic system is to cool the Science Instrument Assembly (SIA, which is the
combination of the telescope and focal-plane instruments) below 8K by the combination of the radiative cooling system
and mechanical cryocoolers without any cryogen.
Proc. SPIE. 9904, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave
KEYWORDS: Cooling systems, Telescopes, Space telescopes, Space telescopes, Infrared radiation, Space operations, Infrared telescopes, Optical instrument design, James Webb Space Telescope, Cryogenics, Cryogenics, Electrical breakdown
The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a pre-project of JAXA in collaboration
with ESA to be launched in the 2020s. The SPICA mission is to be launched into a halo orbit around
the second Lagrangian point in the Sun-Earth system, which allows us to use effective radiant cooling in combination
with a mechanical cooling system in order to cool a 2.5m-class large IR telescope below 8K. Recently,
a new system design in particular thermal structure of the payload module has been studied by considering
the technical feasibility of a cryogenic cooled telescope within current constraints of the mission in the CDF
(Concurrent Design Facility) study of ESA/ESTEC. Then, the thermal design of the mechanical cooler system,
for which the Japanese side is responsible, has been examined based on the CDF study and the feasible
solution giving a proper margin has been obtained. As a baseline, 4K / 1K-class Joule-Thomson coolers are
used to cool the telescope and thermal interface for Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs). Additionally, two sets of
double stirling coolers (2STs) are used to cool the Telescope shield. In this design, nominal operation of FPIs
can be kept when one mechanical cooler is in failure.
The Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission is the sixth Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite developed by a large international collaboration, including Japan, USA, Canada, and Europe. The mission aimed to provide the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E > 2 keV, using a microcalorimeter instrument, and to cover a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. After a successful launch on 2016 February 17, the spacecraft lost its function on 2016 March 26, but the commissioning phase for about a month provided valuable information on the on-board instruments and the spacecraft system, including astrophysical results obtained from first light observations. The paper describes the Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission, its capabilities, the initial operation, and the instruments/spacecraft performances confirmed during the commissioning operations for about a month.
The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a pre-project of JAXA in collaboration with ESA to be launched around 2025. The SPICA mission is to be launched into a halo orbit around the second Lagrangian point in the Sun-Earth system, which allows us to use effective radiant cooling in combination with a mechanical cooling system in order to cool a 3m large IR telescope below 6K. The use of 4K / 1K-class Joule-Thomson coolers is proposed in order to cool the telescope and provide a 4K / 1K temperature region for Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs). This paper introduces details of the thermal design study for the SPICA payload module in the Risk-Mitigation-Phase (RMP), in which the activity is focused on mitigating the mission’s highest risks. As the result of the RMP activity, most of all the goals have been fully satisfied and the thermal design of the payload module has been dramatically improved.
The Hard X-ray Imager and the Soft Gamma-ray Detector, onboard the 6th Japanese X-ray satellite ASTRO-H, aim at unprecedentedly-sensitive observations in the 5–80 keV and 40–600 keV bands, respectively. Because their main sensors are composed of a number of semi-conductor devices, which need to be operated in a temperature of –20 to –15◦C, heat generated in the sensors must be efficiently transported outwards by thermal conduction. For this purpose, we performed thermal design, with the following three steps. First, we additionally included thermally-conductive parts, copper poles and graphite sheets. Second, constructing a thermal mathematical model of the sensors, we estimated temperature distributions in thermal equilibria. Since the model had rather large uncertainties in contact thermal conductions, an accurate thermal dummy was constructed as our final step. Vacuum measurement with the dummy successfully reduced the conductance uncertainties. With these steps, we confirmed that our thermal design of the main sensors satisfies the temperature requirement.
The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions developed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), with a planned launch in 2015. The ASTRO-H mission is equipped with a suite of sensitive instruments with the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E > 3 keV and a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with the high spectral resolution of ΔE ≤ 7 eV of the micro-calorimeter, will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. ASTRO-H is expected to provide breakthrough results in scientific areas as diverse as the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution, the behavior of matter in the gravitational strong field regime, the physical conditions in sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters at different redshifts.
The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated
by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the highenergy
universe via a suite of four instruments, covering a very wide energy range, from 0.3 keV to 600 keV.
These instruments include a high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer sensitive over 0.3–12 keV with
high spectral resolution of ΔE ≦ 7 eV, enabled by a micro-calorimeter array located in the focal plane of
thin-foil X-ray optics; hard X-ray imaging spectrometers covering 5–80 keV, located in the focal plane of
multilayer-coated, focusing hard X-ray mirrors; a wide-field imaging spectrometer sensitive over 0.4–12 keV,
with an X-ray CCD camera in the focal plane of a soft X-ray telescope; and a non-focusing Compton-camera
type soft gamma-ray detector, sensitive in the 40–600 keV band. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled
with high spectral resolution, will enable the pursuit of a wide variety of important science themes.
The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated
by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the
high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, high-throughput spectroscopy with moderate angular
resolution. ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. ASTRO-H allows a combination
of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray
mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV)
provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD
camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray
detector (40-600 keV) . The micro-calorimeter system is developed by an international collaboration led
by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of
ΔE ~7 eV provided by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be