The Euro50 is a European Extremely Large Telescope. Its enclosure will be among the largest buildings of the world. Determining the maximum wind load is crucial for the survival of the structure, and local forces have an impact on the detailed design such as cladding. Pressure variations on the primary mirror and the wind load on the telescope are important for the development of active optics and segment control systems. To obtain data for the survival wind load as well as for typical observing conditions, the airflow pattern has been studied both with a wind tunnel model and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Special attention has been given to determination of pressures on the primary mirror. Results are compared for the two methods and also with data available from previous studies and from measurements on existing telescopes. Finally, a typical wind load envelope is defined for the integrated telescope model.
The Euro50 is an extremely large telescope for optical and infrared wavelength with a 50 m primary mirror. It has a segmented, aspherical primary mirror and an aspherical, deformable secondary in a Gregorian layout. A tentative conceptual design exists and has been documented in a study report. Recent activities have concentrated on the science case for extremely large telescopes in the 50 m class and on identification of potential technical "show stoppers". The science case investigation has identified four fields of particular interest. The studies of critical technical issues have concentrated on atmospheric dispersion effects for high-resolution adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes, and on the influence of wind and other disturbances on wavefront control. Wind load on the telescope, the primary mirror and the enclosure has been studied using wind tunnel measurements and computational fluid dynamics. The impact of wind on the total system has been investigated using an integrated model that includes the telescope structure, the primary mirror segment alignment system, the secondary mirror alignment system, and single conjugate adaptive optics using the deformable secondary mirror. The first, tentative results show that wind disturbances may be significant and that the task of correcting for wind residuals may be at least as large for the adaptive optics system as that of correcting for atmospheric aberrations. The results suggest that use of extremely large telescopes for observations of earth-like planets around nearby stars may imply a considerable challenge.
The Euro50 is an astronomical extremely large telescope for optical and infrared wavelength with a 50 m primary mirror. The telescope will have an elaborate control system ("live optics") to correct for atmospheric and telescope aberrations. To study and predict performance of the complete telescope system, an integrated model combining the structural model of the telescope, optics models, the control systems, and the adaptive optics has been established. Wind is taken into account on the basis of wind tunnel measurements and computer fluid dynamics calculations. Atmospheric aberrations are included using a seven-layer atmosphere model. The integrated model is written in Matlab and is run on a cluster computer to achieve acceptable execution times. Dedicated ordinary differential equation solvers have been written and a special toolkit for communication between Matlab processes on different nodes of the cluster computer has been set up. Preliminary results from the complete integrated model, including adaptive optics, are shown.
The Euro50 is a telescope for optical and infrared wavelengths. It has an aspherical primary mirror with a size of 50 meters and 618 segments. The optical configuration is of Gregorian type and the secondary mirror is deformable for adaptive optics. Observations can take place in prime focus, Gregorian foci, and Nasmyth foci using additional relay mirrors. The telescope provides seeing limited observations, partial adaptive optics with ground layer correction, single conjugate adaptive optics and dual-conjugate adaptive optics. For prime focus observations, a clam-shell corrector with a doublet lens is used. The primary mirror segments can be polished using the precessions polishing technique. "Live Optics" denotes the joint segment alignment system, secondary mirror control system, adaptive optics and main axes servos. An overview is given of the live optics architecture, including feedback from wavefront sensors for natural and laser guide stars, and from primary mirror segment edge sensors. A straw man concept of the laser guide star system using sum-frequency YAG lasers is presented together with a solution to the laser guide star perspective elongation problem. The structural design involves a large steel structure and a tripod of carbon fiber reinforced polymer to support the secondary mirror. Integrated models have been set up to simulate telescope performance. Results show that an enclosure is needed to protect the telescope against wind during observations. The enclosure is very large box-shaped steel structure.
The Euro50 is a proposed 50 m optical and infrared telescope. It will have thousands of control loops to keep the optics aligned under influence of wind, gravity and thermal loads. Cross-disciplinary integrated modeling is used to study the overall performance of the Euro50. A sub-model of the mechanical structure originates from finite element modeling. The optical performance is determined using ray tracing, both non-linear and linearized. The primary mirror segment alignment control system is modeled with the 618 segments taken as rigid bodies. Adaptive optics is included using a layered model of the atmosphere and sub-models of the wavefront sensor, reconstructor and controller. The deformable mirror is, so far, described by a simple influence function and a second order dynamical transfer function but more detailed work is in progress. The model has been implemented using Matlab/Simulink on individual computers but it will shortly be implemented on a Beowulf cluster within a trusted network. Communication routines between Matlab on the cluster processors have been written and are being benchmarked. Representative results from the simulations are shown.
Euro50 is a proposed optical telescope with an equivalent primary mirror diameter of 50 m. Partners of the collaboration are institutes in Sweden, Spain, Ireland, Finland, and the UK. The telescope will have a segmented primary mirror and an aplanatic Gregorian configuration with two elliptical mirrors. For a 50 m telescope there would be no economical advantage in going to a spherical primary. The size of the primary mirror segments (2 m) has been selected on the basis of a minimization of cost. An adaptive optics system will be integrated into the telescope. The telescope will have three operational modes: Seeing limited observations, single conjugate adaptive observations in the K-band, and dual conjugate observations also in the K-band. An upgrade to adaptive optics also in the visible down to 500 nm is foreseen. There will be an enclosure to protect the telescope against adverse weather and wind disturbances. Integrated simulation models are under development. The project time will be 10 years and the cost some 591 MEuros.
The Euro50 is a proposed optical telescope with an equivalent aperture of 50 m. It will have a segmented primary mirror and full adaptive optics. To study the interaction of the telescope structure, the control system and the optics, an integrated simulation model has been formulated. The mechanical model is a modal version of an Ansys finite element model. The optics model is based on ray tracing and physical optics. The segments model takes the alignment servos and the segment dynamics into account. Wind variation over the primary mirror is included. Segment control system modeling is in progress. First results clearly demonstrate that a good enclosure is needed to protect the telescope well against wind. The results also suggest that the segment alignment system must have a bandwidth well above the lowest eigenfrequencies of the telescope.