Recently, a set of polarimetric indicators, the Indices of Polarimetric Purity (IPPs), were described in the literature. These indicators allow synthesize depolarization content of samples, and provide further analysis of depolarizers than other existing polarimetric indicators. We demonstrate the potential of the IPPs as a criterion to characterize and classify depolarizing samples. In particular, the method is firstly analyzed through a series of basic polarization experiments, and we prove how differences in the depolarizing capability of samples, concealed from the commonly used depolarization index PΔ, are identified with the IPPs.
In the second part of this work, the method is experimentally highlighted by studying a rabbit leg ex-vivo sample. The obtained images of the ex-vivo sample illustrate how IPPs provide a significant enhancement in the image contrast of some biological tissues and, in some cases, present new information hidden in the usual polarimetric channels. Moreover, new physical interpretation of the sample can be derived from the IPPs which allow us to synthesize the depolarization behavior.
Finally, we also propose a pseudo-colored encoding of the IPPs information that provides an improved visualization of the samples. This last technique opens the possibility to highlight a specific tissue structure by properly adjusting the pseudo-colored formula.
We highlight the interest of using the Indices of Polarimetric Purity (IPPs) for the biological tissue inspection. These are three polarimetric metrics focused on the study of the depolarizing behaviour of the sample. The IPPs have been recently proposed in the literature and provide different and synthetized information than the commonly used depolarizing indices, as depolarization index (PΔ) or depolarization power (Δ). Compared with the standard polarimetric images of biological samples, IPPs enhance the contrast between different tissues of the sample and show differences between similar tissues which are not observed using the other standard techniques. Moreover, they present further physical information related to the depolarization mechanisms inherent to different tissues. In addition, the algorithm does not require advanced calculations (as in the case of polar decompositions), being the indices of polarimetric purity fast and easy to implement. We also propose a pseudo-coloured image method which encodes the sample information as a function of the different indices weights. These images allow us to customize the visualization of samples and to highlight certain of their constitutive structures. The interest and potential of the IPP approach are experimentally illustrated throughout the manuscript by comparing polarimetric images of different ex-vivo samples obtained with standard polarimetric methods with those obtained from the IPPs analysis. Enhanced contrast and retrieval of new information are experimentally obtained from the different IPP based images.
We propose two different in-line optical schemes for the implementation of Biaxial Crystal (BC) based polarimeters. Unlike already existing BC polarimeters prototypes, our proposed architectures only require of a single BC and only one CCD camera, this leading to more feasible and cheaper prototypes. The first scheme is restricted to linear metrology and we provide its interest to be applied under low-intensity conditions. The second architecture is suitable for complete polarimetry, this being achieved by including an optical module to properly split and steer the input light. The BC polarimeters were implemented and tested by measuring different known input polarizations and we obtained excellent results in terms of accuracy and repeatability.
On the 20th of December 2013, The United Nations (UN) General Assembly 68th Session proclaimed 2015 as the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (IYL 2015). The proclamation of an International Year focusing on the light science and applications recognizes the importance of light in the society, which plays a vital role in our daily lives, being visible in a widespread number of different areas, as for instance, in technology, education, energy, art, agriculture, health, among many others. In this work, the members of the Image Processing Laboratory from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), analyze the concept of readapting some experiments in optics -usually conducted in different courses at the UAB physics degree- into the artistic context of the MACBA (Museu d’Art Contemporani de Barcelona). This project, called SummerLight, takes place within the framework of the IYL, as part of the activities devised to promote the visibility of light. The readapted experiments are expected to teach and improve the knowledge of high school students with respect to different important physical phenomena related to the wave nature of light as polarization, interferences and diffraction. This study analyzes the suitability of the proposed experiments in terms of student optical skills improvement. In addition, its contextualization into an artistic scenario is also discussed.
Liquid Crystals on Silicon (LCOS) displays are a type of LCDs that work in reflection. Such devices, due to the double pass that the light beam performs through the LC cells, lead to larger phase modulation than transmissive LCDs with the same thickness. By taking advantage of this modulation capability exhibited by LCOS displays, we propose a new experimental set-up which is able to provide customized state of polarization spatial distributions just by means of a single LCOS display. To this aim, a double reflection on different halves of the display is properly performed. This fact is achieved by including a compact optical system that steers the light and performs a proper polarization plane rotation.
The set-up has been experimentally implemented and some experimental concerns are discussed. The suitability of the system is provided by generating different experimental spatial distributions of polarization. In this regard, well-known polarization distributions, as axial, azimuthal or spiral linear polarization patterns are here provided. Based on the excellent results obtained, the suitability of the system to generate different spatially variant distributions of polarization is validated.
A complete and punctual Stokes polarimeter based on the conical refraction (CR) phenomenon is presented. The CR phenomenon occurs when light travels along one of the optical axes of a biaxial crystal (BC), leading to a bright ring of light at the focal plane of the system. We propose using the connection between the intensity pattern of the CR ring and the state of polarization (SOP) of the incident beam as a new tool for polarization metrology. In order to implement a complete polarimeter, the instrument is designed with a beam splitter and two BCs, one BC for each sub-beam. In the second sub-beam, a retarder is introduced before the BC, allowing us to measure the ellipticity content of the input SOP.
The CR-based polarimeter presents several appealing features compared to standard polarimeters. To name some of them, CR polarimeters retrieve the SOP of an input beam with a single snapshot measurement, allow for substantially enhancing the data redundancy without increasing measuring time, and avoid instrumental errors related to rotating elements or active polarization devices.
This work shows the instrument design, in particular the parameters of the set-up have been optimized in order to reduce the amplification of noise. Then, the experimental implementation of the instrument is detailed, including the experimental calibration of the system. Finally, the implemented polarimeter is experimentally tested by measuring different SOPs, including fully and partially polarized light.