The National Development and Reform Commission of China has approved a large number of nuclear power projects, with a total capacity of 23,000 MW. However, concomitant with the accelerated development of nuclear power stations, the environmental effects of thermal discharge will become a problem that cannot be avoided. Real-time monitoring of water temperature needs to be installed following station construction in order to measure its variation with time and to ensure that the operation of the nuclear plant does not result in adverse environmental damage. Landsat is the world’s oldest, continuously acquired collection of space-based, moderate-resolution, land remote sensing data. On May 30, 2013, data from the Landsat 8 satellite became available, and the data quality and radiometric quantization of the thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) are significantly greater than those of previous Landsat instruments. The analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) obtained from Landsat 8’s TIRS data was used to enhance information about the plume shape, dimensions, and direction of dispersion of the thermal discharge from the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Hangzhou Bay on the East China Sea coast. Both single-channel and split-window algorithms were used and focused. The detection of temperature increases through split-window algorithms is considered a preferable method for warm discharge monitoring. Recent results showed that the thermal discharge from the nuclear plant was controlled over a small area, and that it never breached national water quality standards.
Water surface emissivity is a vital parameter in thermal remote sensing, since knowledge of them is required to estimate surface temperature with enough accuracy. It is also important in meteorological and climatological analysis. In this study, we show the results obtained for the water surface emissivity spectra from absolute emissivity method (AE) and the temperature and emissivity separation (TES) algorithm in the laboratory measurements with a mutiband thermal radiometer. And compare the retrieved emissivities with the water surface theoretical model. The results show that there is an agreement better than 1% for all bands for AE method, However, the TES algorithm retrieves get bad results, the deviations nearly reach 3%, due to the water have low emissivity spectral contrast, which correspond to an error in water surface temperature from 1.7 K to 2K. By revising TES algorithm (TSE*), which precision indicate accuracy of lower than 1%. Both AE and revised TES (TES*) algorithm demonstrate that they can be applying to retrieve accurate emissivity spectra for water surfaces in laboratory measurements. And providing other emissivity measurements methods reference, also supplying some thermal emission and temperature algorithm researches guidance.
Thermal infrared radiometers play a vital role in obtaining information in field measurements and also in verifying information from remote sensing satellite sensor data. However, the calibration precision of the thermal infrared radiometers directly affects the accuracy of the remote sensing data analysis and application. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the calibration of thermal infrared radiometers is of sufficient and reliable precision. In this paper, the theory of a six-band thermal infrared radiometer (CE 312-2 ASTER) calibration method was introduced, with the calibration being conducted by using a blackbody source in the laboratory. The sources of error during the calibration procedure were analyzed, and the results of the calibration were provided. Then, laboratory experiments using the radiometer were described. The measurements of the surface temperature of a water sample that was contained in a thermostatic water bath, performed by using the radiometer, were compared to the water sample’s temperature controlled by another device. These experiments were used to evaluate the calibration precision of the CE 312-2 ASTER radiometer, by means of assessing the measurement accuracy of the experiments. The results demonstrated that the calibration coefficients of the CE 312-2 ASTER thermal infrared radiometer displayed a very good performance, with highly accurate measurements, and could be used to detect phenomena related to a thermal infrared target.