James R. Janesick
Distinguished Engineer at SRI International
SPIE Involvement:
Author | Instructor
Publications (34)

Proceedings Article | 17 November 2017 Paper
Proc. SPIE. 10563, International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2014
KEYWORDS: CMOS sensors, Imaging systems, Cameras, Sensors, Quantum efficiency, Charge-coupled devices, Mars, Planets, CCD image sensors, Comets

Proceedings Article | 28 April 2017 Presentation + Paper
Proc. SPIE. 10209, Image Sensing Technologies: Materials, Devices, Systems, and Applications IV
KEYWORDS: Oxides, Clocks, Imaging systems, Silicon, Interference (communication), Capacitance, Cadmium sulfide, Field effect transistors, Charge-coupled devices, Semiconducting wafers

Proceedings Article | 31 August 2015 Paper
Proc. SPIE. 9591, Target Diagnostics Physics and Engineering for Inertial Confinement Fusion IV
KEYWORDS: Imaging systems, Sensors, Signal attenuation, Video, Electrons, Interference (communication), Signal processing, Cadmium sulfide, Field effect transistors, Charge-coupled devices

Proceedings Article | 10 September 2014 Paper
Proc. SPIE. 9211, Target Diagnostics Physics and Engineering for Inertial Confinement Fusion III
KEYWORDS: Light emitting diodes, Clocks, Imaging systems, Image processing, Video, Silicon, Photomasks, Cadmium sulfide, Charge-coupled devices, Semiconducting wafers

Proceedings Article | 7 October 2013 Paper
Proc. SPIE. 8862, Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation V
KEYWORDS: Sun, Imaging systems, Sensors, Image sensors, Detector development, Charge-coupled devices, CCD image sensors, Active sensors, Prototyping, Solar processes

Showing 5 of 34 publications
Course Instructor
SC504: Introduction to CCD and CMOS Imaging Sensors and Applications
This course provides a review of general theory and operation for CCD and CMOS imaging technologies looking at the development and application statuses of both. Performance differences between CMOS and CCD imaging arrays are covered. Fundamental performance limits behind major sensor operations are presented in addition to image defects, shorts, device yield, popular chip foundries, chip cost; custom designed and off-the-shelf sensors. We discuss operation principles behind popular commercial and scientific CMOS pixel architectures, and various array readout schemes. We cover backside illuminated arrays for UV, EUV and x-ray applications; high QE frontside illuminated sensors; deep depletion CCDs, ultra large CMOS and CCD arrays; high speed/ low noise parallel readout sensors. We describe the photon transfer technique in measuring performance and calibrating camera and chip systems, and charge transfer mechanisms. We review correlated double sampling theory used to achieve low noise performance and conclude with a look at future research and development trends for each technology.
SC916: Digital Camera and Sensor Evaluation Using Photon Transfer
Photon transfer (PT) is a popular and essential characterization standard employed in the design, operation, characterization, calibration, optimization, specification and application of digital scientific and commercial camera systems. The PT user friendly technique is based on only two measurements- average signal and rms noise which together produce a multitude of important data products in evaluating digital camera systems (most notably CCD and CMOS). PT is applicable to all imaging disciplines. Design and fabrication process engineers developing imagers rely heavily on PT data products in determining discrete performance parameters such as quantum efficiency (QE), quantum yield, read noise, full well, dynamic range, nonlinearity, fixed pattern noise, V/e- conversion gain, dark current , image, etc.. Camera users routinely use the PT technique to determine system level performance parameters to convert relative measurements into absolute electron and photon units, offset correction, flat field and image S/N, ADC quantizing noise, optimum encoding, minimum detectable luminance, operating temperature to remove dark current , reliability, stability, etc. PT is also the first go/no-go test performed to determine the health of new camera system and/or detector as well as provide a power tool in trouble shooting problems. This course will review these aspects and many others offered by PT.
SC1274: Introduction to Fundamental Performance Limits of CCD and CMOS Imagers
This course provides a brief review of general theory, architecture and operation of CCD and CMOS imagers. In depth discussions then focus on four key operational imager features which collectively limit overall sensor performance (i.e., charge generation, charge collection, charge transfer and charge readout). The course will show how these parameters govern most measurements such as quantum efficiency (QE), modulation transfer function (MTF), charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and read noise measurements. Absolute test tools are presented that measure these characteristics. We will review at some length the ‘photon transfer technique’ which has become an indispensable standard test tool for the imaging community in evaluating the quality of a camera system and calibration and optimization needs. We present correlated double sampling (CDS) which is a mandatory signal processing method for imagers that delivers ultra low noise performance. The course will also take a quick look at future R&D imaging trends and new applications.<i></i>
SC070: Introduction to CCDs and Basic Applications
This course will detail advances in pixel count (arrays as large as 10K by 10K), quantum efficiency (spectral coverage of 1 to 11,000 A), charge transfer efficiency (99.9999% efficient per pixel transfer), read noise (less than 1 e-rms), large dynamic range (greater than 1,000,000), and high-speed operation (diffusion limited). Topics that will be discussed and presented include technologies used to achieve such high levels of performance; IR, visible, UV, EUV, and x-ray applications; general CCD theory, operation and pixel architectures; photoelectric effect and operation of the buried channel MOS capacitor; CCD defects, shorts, device yield, packaging and cost; different CCD architectures; transport systems; commercial versus scientific applications; photon transfer, lux transfer, x-ray transfer, flat-fielding and absolute photon standard techniques in measuring signal-to-noise, linearity, full well, read noise, dynamic range, QE sensitivity, dark current and fixed pattern noise; performance limits behind charge generation, charge collection, charge transfer, and charge measurement; carrier diffusion and its effect on the modulation transfer function; fabrication technologies including MPP, notch, virtual-phase, thin gate, transparent gate, backside illumination, AR coatings and anti-blooming; CTE traps, problems and solutions; signal processing techniques and theory used to achieve sub electron noise performance; grounding and shielding techniques for low noise/high-speed operation; on-chip noise sources; off-chip noise sources; CCD and camera optimization; radiation and ESD damage consequences that lead to performance degradation.
SC138: Introduction to CCDs
This course explains the remarkable characteristics of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used in imaging systems. The course details advances in pixel count (arrays as large as 9K by 9K), quantum efficiency (spectral coverage of 1 to 11,000 ?), charge transfer efficiency (99.9999% efficient per pixel transfer), read noise (less than 1 e- rms), and ultra-large dynamic range (greater than 106). The course reviews the CCD technologies responsible for these high levels of performance.
SC069: Absolute Standardization and Optimization of Digital CCDs and Cameras
This course presents the CCD Transfer method used in standardizing, optimizing, and specifying performance for digital CCD and cameras. CCD transfer curves for optimum clocking, noise, full well, signal-to-noise, pixel non-uniformity, quantum and charge collection and transfer efficiency, transfer rate, residual image, anti-blooming, radiation damage, and signal processing timing are discussed.
SC072: Electronic Design of High Performance Digital CCD Cameras
This course reviews the design and application of scientific CCD imaging cameras. The course will present several camera configurations that cover a wide range of applications including UV and x-ray imaging cameras.
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