A new formalism is used to calculate the combined effect of PMD and PDL. By means of a Monte Carlo simulation, a probability distribution for the largest pulse spreading in a fiber with PMD and PDL is simulated, which can be approximated by a generalized lambda distribution.
The scattering matrix formalism, extensively used for the analysis
of microwave networks can be easily extended to the optical domain
if the optical signal is represented by Jones vectors to account
for the different polarizations. The polarization properties of
optical components are characterized by Jones matrices which can
be easily combined with the scattering matrix formalism. We show
in this paper, that the scattering matrices of polarization
dependent fiber optic couplers can be calculated by combining
their theoretical vector modes with simple measurements. The
complete theoretical description of the polarization properties of
fiber optic couplers is important for the simulation of
interferometric fiber optic sensors, which are very sensitive to
polarization and to estimate PDL and PMD in fiber optic
We developed a new measurement algorithm which enables fiber optic sensors based on the 3 x 3 Sagnac interferometer to have a dynamic range which is limited only by the speed of the electronics measuring the signals of the photodetectors. Fiber optic current sensors and fiber optic gyroscopes using our algorithm can measure arbitrary large input and improve precision by using longer fiber coils. We proved the concept by building a passive fiber optic gyroscope.
We have developed an integrated system for laser beam deflection, using a monolithic silica on silicon structure including microlenses and an electromechanical actuator. The scanner shows a maximum deflection angle of +/- 5 degree(s) for a static Voltage of about 130 V or continuous scanning of a field of 20 degree(s) for a 45 V signal at the resonance frequency. The device is fabricated by a surface micromachining process of a silica layer on silicon substrate with no subsequent assembling steps involved.