The paper deals with Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) and takes into consideration both present and future aspects of
the practical deployment of this equipment under conditions of Electronic Warfare (EW), including the integration of
UGS into a joint system using the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). The first part of the paper deals with the
possibilities, characteristics and useable properties of seismic-acoustic communication in the group of nodes,
supplementing the information coverage of existing UGS, including the selection of a suitable working frequency band
for seismic communication. The second part of the paper then describes an alternative method of communication
between nodes and UGS using LF radio communication, and analyses the design and real properties of a proposed
communication channel in LF band, the design of a loop antenna and its mechanical construction. The interim
conclusions of each section generalize the results of seismic-acoustic and radio LF communications as verified in
practice, and describe both the advantages and disadvantages of communication channels defined in this way. The third
part of the paper deals with the possibility of integrating the nodes-UGS to a central system consisting of a UAS device.
It covers the design and an energy evaluation of a system operating on the principle of data selection from UGS. In addition, the paper includes illustrative photographs of the practical design and graphic results of real measurements.
The development of new sensor systems able to detect, identify and find position of the targets equipped with
STEALTH technology began early in 1990s. Some of the sensor systems utilise acoustic, magnetic, seismic and/or
other physical effects of target activity. A reason motivating the development of new sensor systems based on other
than radar or optical principal of operation in detecting targets is that the systems usually emit no electromagnetic
energy during operation. Thanks to their passive principle they provide the users with the advantages of hidden
positioning and difficult discovery with reconnaissance tools. Therefore, some of the new UGS systems also allow
detecting low-flying targets, such as helicopters, propeller or jet aircraft, etc., in the detection range of up to several
kilometres. The information of flight direction is usually estimated and deduced from spatiotemporal sequence
detections by multiple interlinked UGS systems.
The submitted paper analyses low-flying target position finding principle on Time Direction Of Arrival (TDOA) basis.
It presents the qualities of found UGS arrangement topologies and the characteristics of the unambiguous position
determination of low-flying targets. It also contains mathematical description of signal digital processing intended to
find low-flying target's position. The processed results are presented in table and diagram forms created in Matlab
mathematical environment. All the presented detection and identification results were obtained from real recorded
Passive detection systems guarding battle space, often called Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) in publications, have
been utilised in military applications for several years experiencing a number of changes and updates in design recently.
Their primary task is to detect and identify the targets of interest that may be defined as personnel, wheel or track
vehicles or other type. As standard, seismic, magnetic, passive infrared, acoustic or other sensors are used for detection
and identification, if applicable. UGS systems then digitally process and evaluated the signals generated by the sensors.
The submitted paper explains signal digital analysis and the options for detecting low-flying targets through surface
seismic wave utilisation. It contains mathematical description of and the results from processing the surface seismic
waves excited by some types of aircraft flying at low ground altitudes. It also mentions the options for low-flying target
identification and suitable type descriptor selection.
The processed results are presented in table and diagram forms created in Matlab mathematical environment. All the
presented detection and identification results were obtained from real recorded signals.
This paper introduces new developed unattended ground sensor - UGS for urban warfare conditions. It describes the
challenges of urban area warfare and the problems rising with standard UGS installed, particularly for data transfer via
VHF communication. Then the author discusses the options for UGS new types to be made considering data transfer in
LF-band. However, the core deals with the design and construction of an ultra-thin sensor whose part sensing the
mechanical vibrations of surface seismic waves excited by human walk is also utilized as a transmitting aerial operating
in LF-band. In this part, the paper describes the modified LF-band receiver working at the same time as a UHF-band
repeater unit, too. In addition, the receiver may be completed with a GPS-operating receiver unit. The paper concludes
with presentation of practical test run results achieved with a sensor sample really made and with a description of future
development trends of ultra-thin sensors. The designed sensor may be optionally utilized for non-standard locating unit
to find persons' positions in underground spaces, tunnels, caves, etc.
This contribution is orientated towards the area of the development of new Unattended Ground Sensor - UGS for an
urbanized battlefield. Performing operations in a built-up area limits the movement, maneuvering and controlling of
armed forces significantly. To protect one's own units, a dedicated communication network is often created with many
inputs in the form of sensors with process units and with information which can be distributed to every soldier and
commander on the battlefield. The used as well as future UGS are being developed in the sense of "Smart Dust"
The first part of the contribution deals with the design of a miniature UGS which is to be used in an urbanized battlefield
area. The next part then discusses the utilization of the properties of the human body as a possible source of feeding of
the personal warning equipment and, at the same time, as a medium for data transmission. The conclusion of the
contribution describes the results reached in the design of warning equipment where the human body serves both for its
feeding and data transmission.
The presented paper is aimed at the area of the human emission measurement in the ELF band. It presents a designed and
used aerial system suitable for the reception of ELF signals. The results of digital processing of ELF signals are
presented in the contribution in a graphical form. The conclusion of the contribution deals with the possibilities of using
the analysis of ELF signals for the detection of persons behind an obstacle etc.
The presented contribution is focused on the field of alternative use of seismic and magnetic sensors in an urbanized
environment. The first part of the contribution presents the results achieved in the development of these sensors. Both
theoretical possibilities and practical results of developed sensors are analyzed here and supplemented with their
photographs. The next part of the contribution deals with the design of communication between individual sensors
applying the principles of C4ISR in the conditions of an urbanized environment and the proposal of the own/foreign
persons identification concept in the conditions of an urbanized environment.
The presented paper focuses on the possibilities of technical methods designed to detect a trespasser under the ground,
and in general on the possibilities of detection a trespasser behind an obstruction. The paper analyses method of
detection of a trespasser that were practically verified by the author of the paper. The first part of the paper discusses the
characteristics and use of piezoelectric films that could be used as a replacement for the traditional geophone for
detection of underground mining operation. It also provides a block connection diagram of the measuring chain and
photos of the practical implementation of the sensor. The consequent part of the paper then discusses the possibilities of
detecting a trespasser based on electromagnetic waves emission by humans in the ELF - Extremely Low Frequency
band. The paper is supplemented with illustrative photos and results of numeric processing of signals in the form of
graphs and courses.
The history of excavating and using tunnels spans long into the past. Tunnels were used not only as storage for food and
war material but mainly as effective means of protection against attackers. A significant motivating factor for
constructing tunnels lies in the hidden possibility of movement of people and transfer of material under the ground of a
protected perimeter. At present some tunnels are used as roads for smuggling drugs, weapons, ammunition or illegal
passages of people. There are even cases, not exceptional, when tunnels were excavated with the aim to rob a bank safe
etc. The fact that construction of tunnels, often quite primitive ones, is not sporadic, can be continually documented not
only by historical sources but often also by the daily news summary. The concurrent lack of proper technological means
results in the renaissance of using tunnels for illegal purposes even at present. The presented paper focuses on the above
mentioned area and points to little used physical principles of detection underground activities of trespassers.