CASAM (Civil Aircraft Security Against Manpads) is a Framework Program 6 (FP 6) Project launched by the European Commission, DG Research-Aeronautics, binding together a group of 18 companies and research institutions from majors to SMEs. The global objective of the CASAM Project is to design, build, test and validate on ground a closed-loop laser-based DIRCM (Directed IR Countermeasure) equipment for jamming an infrared guided missile fired against a commercial airliner. The broad expertise of the CASAM team allows to address all technical, financial and legal matters dealing with the challenging topic of protecting civilian aircrafts against MANPADS. This paper reviews the main aspects of the projects.
As part of mass transportation systems, commercial aircraft are a potential target for terrorists because they represent one
of the best achievements of our society. As a result, an attack would have a large psychological impact on people and
economic activity. Several European Commission-funded Research and Technology programs, such as SAFEE and
PALMA, are dedicated to technologies and systems that will be implemented onboard aircraft in the near future to
increase the security of commercial flights. One of these programs, CASAM, is focusing on a potential solution to
reduce aircraft vulnerability against Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) during takeoff, ascent and landing.
A specific onboard jamming system will be developed, meeting stringent yet competitive requirements that deal with
high reliability, low cost and minimal installation constraints.
The overall objective of the CASAM Project1 is to design and validate a closed-loop, laser-based DIRCM (Directed IR
Countermeasure) module for jamming fired missiles. It will comply with commercial air transportation constraints,
including the normal air traffic control rules. For example, the following aspects will be considered:
- Environmental friendliness for ground objects and inhabitants close to airports, aircraft safety (maintenance,
handling and usage) and high efficiency against the recognized threats;
- Upgradability for further and future disseminated threats
- Adherence to commercial operation budgets and processes
The latest events of ground-to-air Man Portable Air Defense (MANPAD) attacks against aircraft have revealed a new threat both for military and civilian aircraft. Consequently, the implementation of protecting systems (i.e. Directed Infra Red Counter Measure − DIRCM) in order to face IR guided missiles turns out to be now inevitable. In a near future, aircraft will have to possess detection, tracking, identification, targeting and jamming capabilities to face MANPAD threats. Besides, Multiple Missiles attacks become more and more current scenarios to deal with.
In this paper, a practical example of DIRCM systems under study at SAGEM DEFENSE & SECURITY Company is presented. The article is the continuation of a previous SPIE one. Self-protection solutions include built-in and automatic locking-on, tracking, identification and laser jamming capabilities, including defeat assessment. Target Designations are provided by a Missile Warning System. Targets scenarios including multiple threats are considered to design systems architectures.
In a first step, the article reminds the context, current and future threats (IR seekers of different generations...), and scenarios for system definition. Then, it focuses on potential self-protection systems under study at SAGEM DEFENSE & SECURITY Company. Different strategies including target identification, multi band laser and active imagery have been previously studied in order to design DIRCM System solutions. Thus, results of self-protection scenarios are provided for different MANPAD scenarios to highlight key problems to solve. Data have been obtained from simulation software modeling full DIRCM systems architectures on technical and operational scenarios (parametric studies).